Arquivos de periódicos de março 2019

09 de março de 2019

Checklist of Erioptera (Mesocyphona) species of limoniid crane flies in Florida

This subgenus of limoniid crane flies can be recognized in the genus by the combination of patterned wings and lack of a discal cell. About 15 species occur in the United States, 8 of which may naturally reside in Florida (9 members in list accounts for subspecies) and are listed below.

- E. caliptera caliptera (widespread)

  • E. caliptera femoranigra? (Costa Rica, Mexico)
  • E. evergladea (Florida only)
  • E. femoraatra (southeastern US; LA-GA)
  • E. knabi (widespread)
  • E. needhami (eastern US and Canada)
  • E. parva (eastern US)
  • E. serpentina (eastern US; MA-NC; not recorded from Florida, but may occur)
  • E. tantilla (southern US; KS-TX-MS; no official records from Florida (?), but appears to occur quite commonly)

Most species can be identified based on their wing pattern. There are only a few groups of species that may share the same wing pattern. The following list provides the species that, as far as I know, have been photographed on iNaturalist and on BugGuide. Using photographs as references for species/subspecies identification that will be explained following this section will be best.

  • E. caliptera caliptera
  • E. knabi (single iNaturalist photograph from the US available)
  • E. needhami
  • E. parva
  • E. tantilla

Here are the species that have not been photographed that occur or may occur in Florida...

  • E. evergladea
  • E. serpentina

...and here are the species/subspecies that have been tentatively photographed.

(Photographs of either of the two previously mentioned taxa on BugGuide may not be exclusive to the linked BugGuide submission, and there may be photographs on iNaturalist as well)

-------------------------------------Species/subspecies identification--------------------------------------------

E. caliptera caliptera

  • Femora with 2 black rings
  • White spots on brown pattern: larger white spots neat arranged along the costa of the wing, remainder of the wing (interior) suffused with random white and brown spotting. A white, disorganized linear spot may run transverse along the middle of the wing from costa to one of the CuA veins
  • Similar species: E. femoraatra, E. needhami

E. caliptera femoranigra

  • Similar to E. caliptera caliptera in wing and femora pattern.
  • Femora darker, wings darker
  • From what I can gather, practically indistinguishable from E. femoraatra aside from geographic range. No information about wings or genitalia appears to be sufficient
  • Similar species: E. femoraatra, E. needhami

E. knabi

  • Please visit iNaturalist photo from California that captures this species
  • Thorax with 2 narrow brown dorsal lines and scutellum white divided by a brown line
  • Distinct complex wing pattern; Clusters of hyaline spots with each individual spot bordered by the brown lines that depict veins of the wing; clusters of hyaline spots separated but organized in a row of brown that runs along the costa with the thickness of the brown reaching to Rs and R4; remainder of the wing almost entirely hyaline
  • In other words, wing patterned with an assortment of white and brown "mickey mouse ears"
  • Femora white in basal half, dark in apical half, with the dark apical half divided by a light-colored ring
  • Similar species: E. evergladea

E. femoraatra

  • Similar to E. caliptera in wing and femora pattern
  • Femora darker, wings darker
  • Indistinguishable from E. caliptera femoranigra aside from geographic range
  • Similar species: E. caliptera, E. needhami

E. evergladea

  • Similar to E. knabi in wing pattern; but with much thinner wings and patterns, different thoracic pattern, a uniformly white scutellum (divided by brown line in E. knabi), and more distinct white longitudinal stripes on the side of the thorax?
  • Similar species: E. knabi

E. needhami

  • Similar to E. caliptera and E. femoraatra in wing pattern
  • Femora with only 1 brown ring. This feature separates from similar species
  • Similar species: E. caliptera, E. femoraatra

E. parva

  • One of the most distinct species; clear wings spotted with brown
  • Femora with one brown ring

E. serpentina

  • Similar to E. needhami in wing and femora pattern
  • May not be separable from needhami without inspection of male genitalia

E. tantilla

  • Distinct wing pattern. Very thin white spots on brown wings. Wings appear almost entirely brown.
  • Often assumes an unusual "rear sticking up" pose
  • Originally, the subgenus Mesocyphona is supposed to be characterized by the lack of discal cell by atrophy of the basal portion of M3 (in other words, M1+2 is split), but the reason this was not considered in this post is because this is contradicted by E. tantila. This species appears to have the discal cell lacking by atrophy of the m-m crossvein instead (a feature of subgenus Erioptera) or, in other words, vein CuA1 is split. However, it is the only member of the subgenus with this feature in the US and Canada. The Caribbean has a similar species E. costalis that has a similar appearance to E. tantila, but differs from having the M3 being atrophied instead of the m-m crossvein like in the other members of Mesocyphona in the US/Canada.

Publicado em 09 de março de 2019, 07:32 PM por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

18 de março de 2019

Species of Dermestes north of Mexico

Subgenus Dermestes
ater
lardarius
peruvianus
pulcher* Canada: Manitoba, New Brunswick, Quebec; U.S.A.: Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Texas, Wisconsin
reductus* Canada: Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec; U.S.A.: North Dakota
signatus* Canada; U.S.A

Subgenus Dermestinus
caninus Canada; Hawaiian Is.; Mexico; U.S.A Mexico; U.S.A.: California, New Mexico, Texas
carnivorus
fasciatus Canada: Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan; U.S.A
frischii
maculatus
marmoratus Canada; Mexico; U.S.A.
talpinus Canada; U.S.A
undulatus
sardous* California
nidum** Canada; U.S.A
haemorrhoidalis** U.S.A.
rattus** Canada: Alberta, British Columbia; U.S.A.: Alabama, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Ohio, Oregon, Utah, Wyoming California, Oregon, Wyoming

*Not yet in BugGuide

**These are in Dermestinus, not in BugGuide, have been recorded in America by Hava (2015), but the addition of these species overshoots the species count of 10 for this subgenus as set by BugGuide (1 of these would still fit but not sure which of these is counted as part of the 10 by BG).

Publicado em 18 de março de 2019, 03:29 AM por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

20 de março de 2019

Checklist of and guide to crane flies in the subgenus Tipula (Yamatotipula) that are possibly in Florida

Many of these have not actually been recorded from Florida, but may exist there solely based on the fact that the Catalogue of Craneflies of the World by Oosterbroeck does not provide the southern limits of these species. The ones that have been recorded from Florida are marked with an asterisk (*). Southwestern species are hardly known at all. Even though species recorded from the southwest may still be found east because of limited information about their ecology, western species tend to favor the north rather than south. Tipula jacintoensis and T. comanche are recorded only from California and Texas, respectively, but it is doubtful that their southern range extends east. Therefore, I do not include western species here and in the previous eastern lists.

aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b, p. 49)
brevifurcata (Alexander, 1926o, p. 291)
caloptera* (Alexander, 1943k)
calopteroides (Alexander, 1943k)
catawbiana (Alexander, 1940s, p. 609)
conspicua (Alexander, 1943k)
eluta* (Alexander, 1943k)
floridensis* (Alexander, 1926o, p. 292)
fraterna* (Alexander, 1943k)
furca* (Alexander, 1943k)
jacobus* (Alexander, 1943k)
ludoviciana* (Alexander, 1919h, p. 196)
maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m, p. 182)
manahatta* (Alexander, 1943k)
nephophila (Alexander, 1940s, p. 610)
osceola* (Alexander, 1927m, p. 181)
sackeniana (Alexander, 1943k)
sayi* (Alexander, 1943k)
subeluta* (Alexander, 1943k)
succincta (Alexander, 1940q, p. 151)
tephrocephala (Alexander, 1943k)
tricolor* (Alexander, 1943k)


T. aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b)

  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 not darkened except for tip
  • Poorly described, may not even be in Yamatotipula, only described from Arkansas and Texas
  • Resembles T. tricolor, apparently

T. brevifurcata (Alexander, 1926o)
-Allied to T. catawbiana, T. nephophila, T. succincta

  • Wings seem to be unmarked except for stigmal marking and the irregularly darkened apices; a brown seam on CuA and dm-cu present
  • Antennae with basal segments yellow and the remaining black, extend back to root of halteres in male
  • Costal border of wings not darkened, clear yellow
  • Apex of wing suffused with brown
  • Thorax gray with three brown stripes
  • Femora with proximal half yellow gradually darkening near midlength
  • Abdominal tergites brownish yellow

T. caloptera* (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. calopteroides, T. conspicua
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
  • Abdomen with brown stripes
  • Male antennae short, not passing wing bases if held back

T. calopteroides (Alexander, 1919; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. caloptera, T. conspicua
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
  • Abdomen with brown stripes
  • Male antennae long, well passing wing bases if held back

T. catawbiana (Alexander, 1940s)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. nephophila, T. succincta

  • Wings seem to be unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and irregularly darkened apices, narrow brown seam on CuA present?
  • Antennae with yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing darkened
  • Rs about twice the length of dm-cu
  • Thorax gray with 4 darker stripes
  • Femora with less than proximal half yellow and thus mostly black
    -Abdominal tergites brownish black

T. conspicua (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. caloptera, T. calopteroides
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
  • Abdomen without brown stripes, ochre-yellow

T. eluta* (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. furca. See this image of drawings of the wings (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs
  • Hyaline and dark patterns not very contrasting, dark costal pattern does not intrude into Br before Rs

T. floridensis* (Alexander, 1926o)

  • Allied to T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  • Wings marked, CuA likely with conspicuous, dark seam
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; antennae of male moderately long, extending back to base of abdomen
  • R5 and entire wing apex darkened
  • Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching from stigma, through inner end of discal cell, to far into base of M3
  • fraterna types were lost and I cannot translate Loew's language, may be indistinguishable from fraterna without examination of genitalia
  • Abdominal tergites pale yellowish brown with a broad dark brown sublateral stripe
  • Femora brownish yellow, with the tips narrowly and vaguely darkened
  • Described from Gainesville

T. fraterna* (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • R5 darkened, may be pale in outer edge, but in such case surrounded by considerable darkness and not continuous in color with the center/discal area of the wing where paleness would be
  • Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching posterior to M3 and M4 or far
  • fraterna types were lost, I cannot translate Loew's language, and Alexander (1943k) was not intended to give heavy descriptions. This species may be indistinguishable from floridensis without examination of genitalia and exclusive cases (pale color in R5).
  • Femora with brown tips

T. furca* (Walker, 1848; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. eluta. See this image of drawings of the wings (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs
  • Hyaline and dark patterns contrasting, dark costal pattern seems to intrude into Br before Rs (forming a semi eye spot)

T. jacobus* (Alexander, 1931; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA
  • Antennae with uniformly dark antennae or with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing clear

T. ludoviciana* (Alexander, 1919h)

  • Allied to T. sayi
  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, conspicuous dark seam on CuA
  • Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
  • Costal border of wings dark brown
  • Male antennae super long, about as long as body. This feature distinct among Nearctic species
  • Photograph: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21972337

T. maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  • Wings marked, CuA likely with conspicuous, dark seam
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • R5 and entire wing apex darkened
  • Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching from stigma far into base of M3
  • Side of the thorax with conspicuous brown marks in the cephalic (anterior?) portion of the anepisternum, bottom half of the katepisternum, and on the propleuron, distinguishes from T. floridensis and T. fraterna.
  • Written as distinct from T. subeluta, but descriptions don't help to separate
  • Abdominal tergites dark

T. manahatta* (Alexander, 1919; Alexander, 1943k)

  • basal segments of the antennae dark while the rest or the flagellum is uniformly light yellow (diagnostic among marked-wing species)
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam

T. nephophila (Alexander, 1940s)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. catawbiana, T. succincta

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and irregularly darkened apices, narrow brown seams on CuA
  • Antennae with yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing darkened
  • Rs about 1.5-1.67 times the length of dm-cu
  • Thorax with 4 inconspicuous stripes
  • Femora with more than basal half yellow
  • Abdominal tergites brownish black

T. osceola* (Alexander, 1927m)

  • Allied to T. sayi and T. ludoviciana
  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, presence of seam on CuA unknown, presumably not given resemblance to T. sayi
  • Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow; flagellomeres appear to be very constricted so as to look binodal in the male. In females, may be strongly constricted at the incisures
  • Costal border of wings dark brown
  • Male antennae relatively long
  • Described from Gainesville

T. sackeniana (Alexander, 1918; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
    -R5 darkened

  • Wing with white crossband not extending past the discal cell, or at least not far
  • Side of the thorax unmarked
  • Thorax and abdomen reddish brown
  • Femora dark brown with the basal portion lighter

T. sayi* (Alexander, 1911; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. osceola, T. ludoviciana
  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA
  • Antennae bicolored with the bases OF flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
  • Costal border of wings dark brown
  • Male antennae short

T. subeluta* (Johnson, 1913; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. tricolor
  • Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
    -R5 darkened

  • Wing with white crossband extending from base of stigmal marking to the base of discal cell
  • Side of the thorax with transverse, oblique brown mark running from the shoulders to the base of the second pair of legs.
  • Abdominal tergites dark yellow

T. succincta (Alexander, 1940q)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. catawbiana, T. nephophila

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and with the apex irregularly darkened, there may be a narrow dark seam on CuA
  • Antennae with brownish yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing somewhat darkened
  • Rs nearly straight, about twice the length of dm-cu
  • Thorax with 4 stripes bordered with black
  • Femora yellow with dark color restricted to tip
  • Abdominal tergites brown

T. tephrocephala (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA (sometimes light), apex of wing not darkened
  • Antennae bicolored with base OF flagellar segments light yellow, the remainder dark brown for each one

T. tricolor* (Fabricius, 1775; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta
  • Antennae bicolored
    -R5 darkened

  • Wing with white crossband not extending past the discal cell, or at least not far
  • Side of the thorax unmarked
  • Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen


T. iroquois for reference (Alexander, 1915)

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and with the apex irregularly darkened, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA?
  • Antennae with uniformly dark antennae
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing darkened

Publicado em 20 de março de 2019, 11:02 PM por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

19 de março de 2019

Checklist of crane flies in the subgenus Tipula (Yamatotipula) in Eastern North America

aprilina (USA: ME, south to TN, SC)
aspidoptera (USA: AR, TX)
brevifurcata (USA: TN, NC)
caloptera (Canada to FL)
calopteroides (USA: PA, TN, NC and SC)
carsoni (Canada: NF, NB; USA:ME)
catawbiana (USA: WV, VA, TN, NC, GA)
cayuga (Canada: ON, QC, NF; USA: MI, south to TN, NC)
concava (Canada; USA: MI-ME, south to KS, MO, AR and TN)
conspicua (USA: NC)
dejecta (USA: south to ILand NC)
eluta (Canada to FL)
floridensis (USA: FL)
fraterna (USA: NH, south to FL)
furca (Canada to FL)
iroquois (USA: south to TN and NC)
jacobus (Canada to FL)
kennicotti (Canada: NWT, AB, QC, USA: ND, south to UT, CO, KS, ID and OH)
ludoviciana (USA: LA, FL)
maculipleura (USA: TN)
manahatta (USA: NY, south to TN and FL)
nephophila (USA: TN, NC)
noveboracensis (Canada: ON-NF USA: ME, south to MI and MD)
osceola (USA: FL)
sackeniana (USA: NY to CT, south to TN and GA)
sayi (Canada to FL)
strepens (Canada: ON-QC-NF, south to USA: KS, NJ and perhaps VA)
subeluta (USA: MA, south to LA and FL)
succincta (USA: IN)
sulphurea sulphurea (Canada: AB to USA: Maine, south to Minn, IN and RI)
tephrocephala (Canada; USA: ID, RI, PA, VA, TN, NC)
tricolor (Canada to FL)
vicina (Canada: ON-QC-NF USA:MN, south to KS and PA)

Publicado em 19 de março de 2019, 09:20 PM por aispinsects aispinsects | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

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