Checklist of and guide to crane flies in the subgenus Tipula (Yamatotipula) that are possibly in Florida

Many of these have not actually been recorded from Florida, but may exist there solely based on the fact that the Catalogue of Craneflies of the World by Oosterbroeck does not provide the southern limits of these species. The ones that have been recorded from Florida are marked with an asterisk (*). Southwestern species are hardly known at all. Even though species recorded from the southwest may still be found east because of limited information about their ecology, western species tend to favor the north rather than south. Tipula jacintoensis and T. comanche are recorded only from California and Texas, respectively, but it is doubtful that their southern range extends east. Therefore, I do not include western species here and in the previous eastern lists.

aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b, p. 49)
brevifurcata (Alexander, 1926o, p. 291)
caloptera* (Alexander, 1943k)
calopteroides (Alexander, 1943k)
catawbiana (Alexander, 1940s, p. 609)
conspicua (Alexander, 1943k)
eluta* (Alexander, 1943k)
floridensis* (Alexander, 1926o, p. 292)
fraterna* (Alexander, 1943k)
furca* (Alexander, 1943k)
jacobus* (Alexander, 1943k)
ludoviciana* (Alexander, 1919h, p. 196)
maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m, p. 182)
manahatta* (Alexander, 1943k)
nephophila (Alexander, 1940s, p. 610)
osceola* (Alexander, 1927m, p. 181)
sackeniana (Alexander, 1943k)
sayi* (Alexander, 1943k)
subeluta* (Alexander, 1943k)
succincta (Alexander, 1940q, p. 151)
tephrocephala (Alexander, 1943k)
tricolor* (Alexander, 1943k)


T. aspidoptera (Alexander, 1916b)

  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 not darkened except for tip
  • Poorly described, may not even be in Yamatotipula, only described from Arkansas and Texas
  • Resembles T. tricolor, apparently

T. brevifurcata (Alexander, 1926o)
-Allied to T. catawbiana, T. nephophila, T. succincta

  • Wings seem to be unmarked except for stigmal marking and the irregularly darkened apices; a brown seam on CuA and dm-cu present
  • Antennae with basal segments yellow and the remaining black, extend back to root of halteres in male
  • Costal border of wings not darkened, clear yellow
  • Apex of wing suffused with brown
  • Thorax gray with three brown stripes
  • Femora with proximal half yellow gradually darkening near midlength
  • Abdominal tergites brownish yellow

T. caloptera* (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. calopteroides, T. conspicua
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
  • Abdomen with brown stripes
  • Male antennae short, not passing wing bases if held back

T. calopteroides (Alexander, 1919; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. caloptera, T. conspicua
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
  • Abdomen with brown stripes
  • Male antennae long, well passing wing bases if held back

T. catawbiana (Alexander, 1940s)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. nephophila, T. succincta

  • Wings seem to be unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and irregularly darkened apices, narrow brown seam on CuA present?
  • Antennae with yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing darkened
  • Rs about twice the length of dm-cu
  • Thorax gray with 4 darker stripes
  • Femora with less than proximal half yellow and thus mostly black
    -Abdominal tergites brownish black

T. conspicua (Dietz, 1917; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. caloptera, T. calopteroides
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of cell M1 and M2 pale, cell Br darkened except for tip after Rs
  • Abdomen without brown stripes, ochre-yellow

T. eluta* (Loew, 1863; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. furca. See this image of drawings of the wings (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs
  • Hyaline and dark patterns not very contrasting, dark costal pattern does not intrude into Br before Rs

T. floridensis* (Alexander, 1926o)

  • Allied to T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  • Wings marked, CuA likely with conspicuous, dark seam
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow; antennae of male moderately long, extending back to base of abdomen
  • R5 and entire wing apex darkened
  • Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching from stigma, through inner end of discal cell, to far into base of M3
  • fraterna types were lost and I cannot translate Loew's language, may be indistinguishable from fraterna without examination of genitalia
  • Abdominal tergites pale yellowish brown with a broad dark brown sublateral stripe
  • Femora brownish yellow, with the tips narrowly and vaguely darkened
  • Described from Gainesville

T. fraterna* (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • R5 darkened, may be pale in outer edge, but in such case surrounded by considerable darkness and not continuous in color with the center/discal area of the wing where paleness would be
  • Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching posterior to M3 and M4 or far
  • fraterna types were lost, I cannot translate Loew's language, and Alexander (1943k) was not intended to give heavy descriptions. This species may be indistinguishable from floridensis without examination of genitalia and exclusive cases (pale color in R5).
  • Femora with brown tips

T. furca* (Walker, 1848; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. eluta. See this image of drawings of the wings (furca is fig. 216, eluta is fig. 217): https://static.inaturalist.org/photos/33245236/large.jpg?1553270394
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
  • R5 with at least the outer portion not darkened
  • Bases of M1 and M2 uniformly darkened, cell Br with pale coloration present before Rs
  • Hyaline and dark patterns contrasting, dark costal pattern seems to intrude into Br before Rs (forming a semi eye spot)

T. jacobus* (Alexander, 1931; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA
  • Antennae with uniformly dark antennae or with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing clear

T. ludoviciana* (Alexander, 1919h)

  • Allied to T. sayi
  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, conspicuous dark seam on CuA
  • Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
  • Costal border of wings dark brown
  • Male antennae super long, about as long as body. This feature distinct among Nearctic species
  • Photograph: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21972337

T. maculipleura (Alexander, 1927m)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  • Wings marked, CuA likely with conspicuous, dark seam
  • Flagellum of antennae not uniformly yellow
  • R5 and entire wing apex darkened
  • Wing with conspicuous whitish crossband reaching from stigma far into base of M3
  • Side of the thorax with conspicuous brown marks in the cephalic (anterior?) portion of the anepisternum, bottom half of the katepisternum, and on the propleuron, distinguishes from T. floridensis and T. fraterna.
  • Written as distinct from T. subeluta, but descriptions don't help to separate
  • Abdominal tergites dark

T. manahatta* (Alexander, 1919; Alexander, 1943k)

  • basal segments of the antennae dark while the rest or the flagellum is uniformly light yellow (diagnostic among marked-wing species)
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam

T. nephophila (Alexander, 1940s)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. catawbiana, T. succincta

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and irregularly darkened apices, narrow brown seams on CuA
  • Antennae with yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing darkened
  • Rs about 1.5-1.67 times the length of dm-cu
  • Thorax with 4 inconspicuous stripes
  • Femora with more than basal half yellow
  • Abdominal tergites brownish black

T. osceola* (Alexander, 1927m)

  • Allied to T. sayi and T. ludoviciana
  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, presence of seam on CuA unknown, presumably not given resemblance to T. sayi
  • Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow; flagellomeres appear to be very constricted so as to look binodal in the male. In females, may be strongly constricted at the incisures
  • Costal border of wings dark brown
  • Male antennae relatively long
  • Described from Gainesville

T. sackeniana (Alexander, 1918; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. subeluta, T. tricolor
  • Wings marked and CuA with conspicuous, dark seam
    -R5 darkened

  • Wing with white crossband not extending past the discal cell, or at least not far
  • Side of the thorax unmarked
  • Thorax and abdomen reddish brown
  • Femora dark brown with the basal portion lighter

T. sayi* (Alexander, 1911; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. osceola, T. ludoviciana
  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking and costal border, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA
  • Antennae bicolored with the bases OF flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
  • Costal border of wings dark brown
  • Male antennae short

T. subeluta* (Johnson, 1913; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. tricolor
  • Antennae bicolored with the bases of flagellar segments brown, the remainder yellow
    -R5 darkened

  • Wing with white crossband extending from base of stigmal marking to the base of discal cell
  • Side of the thorax with transverse, oblique brown mark running from the shoulders to the base of the second pair of legs.
  • Abdominal tergites dark yellow

T. succincta (Alexander, 1940q)
-Allied to T. brevifurcata, T. catawbiana, T. nephophila

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and with the apex irregularly darkened, there may be a narrow dark seam on CuA
  • Antennae with brownish yellow basal segments and dark flagellum
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing somewhat darkened
  • Rs nearly straight, about twice the length of dm-cu
  • Thorax with 4 stripes bordered with black
  • Femora yellow with dark color restricted to tip
  • Abdominal tergites brown

T. tephrocephala (Loew, 1864; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA (sometimes light), apex of wing not darkened
  • Antennae bicolored with base OF flagellar segments light yellow, the remainder dark brown for each one

T. tricolor* (Fabricius, 1775; Alexander, 1943k)

  • Allied to T. floridensis, T. fraterna, T. maculipleura, T. sackeniana, T. subeluta
  • Antennae bicolored
    -R5 darkened

  • Wing with white crossband not extending past the discal cell, or at least not far
  • Side of the thorax unmarked
  • Grayish coloration of thorax and abdomen


T. iroquois for reference (Alexander, 1915)

  • Wings unmarked except for stigmal marking, a yellow to brownish costal border, and with the apex irregularly darkened, no conspicuous dark seam on CuA?
  • Antennae with uniformly dark antennae
  • Costal border of wings barely darkened if at all
  • Apex of wing darkened

Publicado por aispinsects aispinsects, 20 de março de 2019, 11:02 PM

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