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The Maui CNC has started!

The global City Nature Challenge started with Christchurch, New Zealand at 3 AM Maui time yesterday and our event started right after midnight this morning. Any observation you take with iNaturalist on Maui over the next four days will be automatically included in the challenge (no need to add it to this project).

While we certainly encourage you to get out and keep making observations over the next four days, we also hope to see you at one of our organized events. The first is next to the Kihei Fourth Friday night market on Piikea Avenue. Join us as we night light for insects along the southern pond. Tomorrow we'll have a morning nature walk along the Kealia Boardwalk. For details visit https://www.meetup.com/Maui-Nui-Natural-History/ or https://mauinui.org.

Happy iNatting!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 04:10 PM por jstarmer jstarmer | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Nu tælles der ned.....

99 arter at se, før du bliver voksen bliver præsenteret på Roots-scenen på Naturmødet i Hirtshals fredag den 24. maj. Vi tør godt love, at det bliver både sjovt og vildt.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 03:32 PM por mortenddhansen mortenddhansen | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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The City Nature Challenge has begun!

AAAAND WE'RE OFF!

Day 1 of the #BoulderDenverCNC is here and as of 9:15am this morning we already have over 50 observations uploaded to our region by 11 different observers. Nice work, everyone! Let's keep the observations rolling in... and please stick to *wild* and *non-captive* observations. Please, no photos of people, pets, farm animals, or potted plants. Thank you!

We have some awesome pubic events lined up throughout Boulder County and the Denver Metro Area, so check them out below. Full descriptions and details are available here: www.wild.org/naturechallenge/#events

FRIDAY, APRIL 26TH:

10:00am-2:00pm: Skins & Skulls at Denver's Commons Park | Led by The Nature Conservancy and the City and County of Denver

SATURDAY, APRIL 27TH:

7:00am-2:00pm: Barr Lake State Park Festivities | Led by the Bird Conservancy of the Rockies

7:00am-3:00pm: Regis University / Lowell Ponds State Wildlife Area Bioblitz | Led by Regis University Sustainability Club

8:00am-11:00am: Family Day at Bluff Lake Nature Center | Led by Bluff Lake Nature Center

9:00am-3:00pm: Chatfield State Park Bioblitz | Led by Chatfield State Park

10:00am-12:00pm: Nature On Your Cell Phone at Ron Stewart Preserve at Rabbit Mountain | Led by Boulder County Parks & Open Space

10:00am-4:00pm: Butterfly Pavilion Hike | Led by the Butterfly Pavilion

9:00am-11:00am: Audubon Nature Center Bioblitz | Led by the Audubon Center at Chatfield

1:00pm-3:00pm: Majestic View Nature Center Bioblitz | Led by Majestic View Nature Center

SUNDAY, APRIL 28TH:

9:00am-1:00pm: Wildflower Bonanza Hike at Goshawk Ridge | Led by the WILD Foundation and City of Boulder Open Space & Mountain Parks

9:00am-1:00pm: Boulder Reservoir Bioblitz | Led by City of Boulder Open Space & Mountain Parks

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 03:15 PM por melanie_hill melanie_hill | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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The City Nature Challenge is On!!!!

The 2019 City Nature Challenge started at midnight this morning and we are already up and rolling with nearly 200 observations!!

Check out our website (https://cncsacramento.home.blog/) for details on upcoming events and follow CNCSacramento on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram for up-to-the-minute details on our progress!!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 03:03 PM por lacigerhart lacigerhart | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Journal Post #6

This week, because we were focused on nesting/mating, I decided to revisit the spot I went to last week to look at the Canada Geese again. Last week I walked by a small pond on Redstone Campus and saw what looked like a female building her nest at the edge of the water. After watching the geese this week I continued to walk along the edge of the golf course onto South Prospect. There is a skinny strip of trees that while suburban, is much quieter than some places in Burlington. I started at 10:30am and went until 11:30am. It was a beautiful day, very sunny and warm. There was a little wind, but not too much.

Last week there was a goose sitting on what looked like a nest at the pond on Redstone campus. She appeared to be still sitting there on Saturday so she must be on a nest. I've also seen the male around the pond, but last week I didn't see him at all so he must have left the pond to either forage for nest building materials or food. They were both there today, with one on the nest and the other swimming in the pond. They pond is completely fenced off, so it's a good place for them to be as there aren't any humans that can get too close, and predators would definitely have a hard time getting in there as well. I don't know if they're able to tell that no predators can get in when they arrived, but as far as territory selection goes, it seems like a really good spot to be. Because the pond is so small, they're also the only birds in that area, so it's easy to defend because it's not too big.

As far as nesting/mating/territory defense in the other species, I didn't see any nests or any indication of mating, other than the Pileated Woodpecker pecking on wood, but that may have just been for food and not as a mating attraction (it was really far up, I couldn't see it very well).

Nesting habitats definitely differ among the different species that I've seen. The geese are on the shore of a pond, the woodpecker is in a tree, and pigeons often have nests that are underneath the ledge of a building. These are super different in terms of human interaction too. Pigeons are definitely interacting with humans a lot more than geese or woodpeckers.

While I was outside, I heard almost exclusively American Robins singing, however I also heard the Canada Geese, the Pileated woodpecker, some Song Sparrows and maybe a Yellow Warbler (but I wasn't sure).

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 02:50 PM por lydianapell13 lydianapell13 | 4 observações | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Good year for dandelions

Early days yet, but our most observed species is the dandelion: https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/47602-Taraxacum-officinale

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 01:46 PM por rachel467 rachel467 | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Day one of the City Nature Challenge!

150 cities around the world are looking for biodiversity - what will Cleveland-Akron-Canton find?!?

Shout out to @crispiscrisp @dan355 @bbedell42 @t_krynak @jonathan2 for being the first 5 people to submit observations on iNaturalist.

Shout out to @hendre17 @awaheed @raymie @jwidness for being our first 4 identifiers.

As of 9:24 AM, we have 13 observations and 32 members following along on the iNaturalist project page. Grab some friends and head outside - let's see how quickly we can double these numbers!

Comment below to invite iNaturalist users you know to participate. Use @ followed by their username and they will get a notification.

If you're on social media, use #CityNatureChallenge

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 01:39 PM por cmnh_education cmnh_education | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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It's a grey squirrel!

So the first wildlife sighting into the Greater Manchester City Nature Challenge is the grey squirrel. They are so common in cities in the UK that it seems quite an appropriate record to open the weekend of biological recording!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 01:38 PM por rachel467 rachel467 | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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1000 down, let's keep 'em coming!

Woooo! Go team!

👀 1000 observations done - another 1000 (at least!?!?) before midnight? E-A-S-Y.

Keep it up!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 01:27 PM por festofnature festofnature | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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First Observation

And we have our first observation! Congratulations to @cbarron for the first Staten Island observation of the year at 9:16, an orange jewelweed in Clove Lakes Park!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 01:19 PM por srall srall | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Brooklyn CNC2019 Journal: Day 1

2019-04-26 09:00
I stayed up late to post the first Brooklyn observation seconds after midnight:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/23095133#activity_comment_2803057

(Still @brianboom somehow got in seconds before me to post the first NYC-overall.)

It's a slow, rainy start to the Challenge. At this moment, there are only two observations for Brooklyn. But we can expect breaks in the rain throughout the day when we can get out and cover our local patches, wherever we are. I'm going to take advantage of this to go to Prospect Park. I'll announce on Twitter - https://twitter.com/xrisfg - when and exactly where I'm going, if anyone would like to join me.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 12:52 PM por xris xris | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Fourth Lab Journal

During this final lab, we had all of our samples back in the lab classroom and we were instructed to analyze, photograph, and observe all of our samples. We didn't find too many organisms in the mud and water we had collected from our BioCube location. We did photograph all of the individual organisms we found and captured in our small Tupperware containers. Within these individual organisms, we photographed and observed some kind of beetle, a shell, multiple different plants, as well as what appeared to be a worm or caterpillar. We measured all of these animals using a ruler, and we included the ruler for reference sizing in our observations and pictures. Most of the organisms we found (shell, beetles, worm/caterpillar) were about 1 cm long, with the plants and earthworms being longer.
We also decided to try and observe our water and mud samples using a microscope to see if there were any protists or smaller organisms that would be visible. We prepared three different slides of the water and mud and used a dissecting microscope. However, we were unable to really see any protists or small organisms in these samples. The mud was too dark to see through and the microscope didn't focus well enough to observe anything in the water. If I had to guess, I'd say without a doubt there are some really cool microbes living in the water, but that observation might have to wait for another swamp team to find.
Most of the sampled organisms we had in our containers were dead during this lab period. The earthworms were the only animals really living but they actually ended up dying during the lab period, likely because they had dried out while exposed to the air and not in their watery and muddy natural environment.
Overall, it was really interesting to go through all of our samples from the swamp now that we were back in the lab. We really had more of the tools to observe and analyze our samples, and we could use the microscope to get some of the really finer details. For example, the earthworms under the microscope had very ridged bodies, with small nub-like legs or hairs protruding from the bottom of the worm. Those details were something we couldn't see just with the naked eye. Or I couldn't at least since I didn't have my glasses on.
I'm definitely going to miss being on the farm, but I probably won't miss the muddiness. Having the opportunity to go to the farm and observe nature and see what kind of biodiversity is really out there was a fantastic experience and I'm really glad that BioTAP got to do it. I saw a lot of things I don't think I expected and I learned a really significant amount about how diverse the swamp really can be. So overall, this was a really neat experience and I got to really see the levels of biodiversity present all around us.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 12:48 PM por nina132 nina132 | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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And we’re off!

City Nature Challenge 2019 is well underway, with over 600 observations already in our region - and it’s only just lunch time on day 1! Come rain or shine, we are in it to retain our title for most observations in Europe 🏆

Remember snacks and drinks as you head of on your adventures, as well as waterproof clothing ☔

GO BRISTOL & BATH!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 12:14 PM por festofnature festofnature | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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⏳ Today is Day-1 of 4! See you out there!

We're about to get in the field and start recording! We'll be today in the Fells and in our neighborhoods. Join us, watch, snap and upload!

Let's get the Boston in the head of the race!

Cheers, - Claire

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 12:07 PM por akilee akilee | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Dneškem začíná soutěž City Nature Challenge

Velké mezinárodní klání potrvá ode dneška až do 29. dubna. Zvítězí město, jemuž se v daném termínu podaří pomocí aplikace iNaturalist zaznamenat největší počet fotografií divoké přírody. Spoustu volně žijících živočichů a planě rostoucích rostlin najdete i v areálu Zoo Praha. Zapojte se také do této soutěže! Více informací se dozvíte na webu https://citynaturechallenge.cz

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 11:55 AM por lusas lusas | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Vamos ao Campo!

O Desafio já está rolando.

Vamos lá! Qualquer observação de organismo nativo é válida.

Aproveitem seus quintais, praças e parques da cidade. Junte amigos ou explore sozinho. Do jeito que preferir.

Vamos mostrar essa biodiversidade exuberante do Cerrado do Planalto Central.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 11:27 AM por onildo_marini onildo_marini | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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First Outing

OK folks. We've been out one time and have started accumulating observations.
I upped the quality of entry. You must have an ID on your entry to have it count.

Reminder: take photos that are detailed enough to be used accurately.
Take multiple pictures - change angles, use different distances, take pictures of different parts of larger organisms.

You will get better as the project continues.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 11:26 AM por jnawrocki jnawrocki | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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City Nature Challenge - Day 1

We're 23 hours into the City Nature Challenge, and it's been a great first day! Aside from one very brief early morning surge from Hong Kong, we've been at the top of the leaderboard all day, maintaining a steady lead. However, dawn is breaking on the east coast of the Americas, so we'll need to get back to work tomorrow!

As of about 11:00PM, we've tallied 2494 observations of 702 species from 93 observers, with identifications being provided by 87 iNaturalist.nz users - including some fantastic folks from out of town who are putting in a lot of work to help with the surge.

The three closest cities are:
Hong Kong: 1993 observations, 597 species, 165 observers - 4 hours behind us
Klang Valley (Kuala Lumpur): 1621 observations, 407 species, 121 observers - 4 hours behind us
Cape Town: 1576 observations, 373 species, 182 observers - 10 hours behind us

Hong Kong and Klang Valley (both with populations of over 7 million people!) were towards the top of the final leaderboard last year, with 20,000+ observations and around 700 observers each! So go us for keeping ahead of them on day 1!

In fact, our one-day tally would place us about midway up the *final results* board for last year's Challenge. And that's without all of the observations that folks made today that will be getting uploaded over the next 10 days.

This is so exciting! 😃

Keep up the awesome work, everyone, and spread the word. We have some real momentum going!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 11:12 AM por laura-nz laura-nz | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Order Poales

Species:
Poa annua (Annual Meadow Grass)
Bromus diandrus (Great Brome)
Typha latifolia (Bulrush)
Vulpia myuros (Rat's-tail Fescue)
Muhlenbergia rigens (Deergrass)

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 11:00 AM por darencea darencea | 16 observações | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Osservazioni caricate automaticamente al progetto

Cari tutti, CNC 2019 è iniziata! Vi scrivo per comunicarvi che non c'è più bisogno di collegare manualmente le osservazioni al progetto BiodiversiNA: se il GPS è attivo e vi trovate all'interno dell'area urbana di Napoli, saranno collegate automaticamente!

Buona caccia a tutti!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 09:10 AM por ddeluca ddeluca | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Reto Naturalista Urbano Tepic

¡¡Inicia el Reto!!

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 07:25 AM por aleturkmen aleturkmen | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Hub to my stuff

It's getting harder to keep track of where I put the journal posts I create, so I'm creating this to help with that.
My projects. My profile.

Euphorbia
List of all Euphorbia resources.
United States project resources.
Anisophyllum project resources.
Statistics.

Croton
Trans-Pecos species.
Central and North Central Texas species.

High Plains Taxa
Abutilon.

Various other taxa
Taraxacum, Texas.
Malvella.
Medicago, Texas.
Asclepias floral morphology.

Other
Various links I use a lot.
iNaturalist tips.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 07:03 AM por nathantaylor nathantaylor | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Euphorbia resources and bibliography, full list

iNaturalist projects:
Euphorbia species of the United States
Euphorbia of Mexico
Sandmats of the World

iNaturalist journal posts (general):
Lists and project info:
Species list for the United States
List of species that have not been observed on iNaturalist yet
Project observation fields explained
Tracked statistics
Tips:
Euphorbia, What to Photograph?
Tips on Harvesting and Photographing Seeds
Identification and taxonomy information:
What makes a good sandmat observation
Cyathium explained (Euphorbia PBI)
Cyathium explained in detail (journal post) and tips on cyathium dissection
Advanced Seed Morphology
Euhorbia PBI data portal (for finding species information including subgeneric taxa, nomenclatural information, and more)
Species commonly identified as Euphorbias
Euphorbia subgroups explained
Euphorbia marginata (Snow-on-the-Mountain) and E. bicolor (Snow-on-the-Prairie)
It's that time of year again: The spots of Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata)
Section Nummulariopsis
Euphorbia albomarginata (Whitemargin Sandmat) and E. polycarpa (Smallseed Sandmat)
Euphorbia esula/virgata information (leafy spurges)
Detailed discussion
Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (Weakley, draft 2015) (see pg. 675)
FNA treatment

General recomended external links:
Flora of North America
BONAP (for maps)
Euphorbia PBI
Euphorbia PBI species search
Tropicos (great way to find primary literature sources)
Biodiversity Heritage Library (great way to find primary literature sources)
GBIF (great way to find herbarium records)
Encyclopedia of life (often useful if you can find a good global map)
SEINet (great way to find herbarium records and photos)
Index herbariorum (useful in understanding what the herbarium abbreviations refer to)
Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (Weakley, draft 2015) (see pg. 669)

Identification resources by Euphorbia subgroup
Section Alectoroctonum:
Euphorbia marginata (Snow-on-the-Mountain) and E. bicolor (Snow-on-the-Prairie)
Section Anisophyllum:
What makes a good sandmat observation
Euphorbia albomarginata (Whitemargin Sandmat) and E. polycarpa (Smallseed Sandmat)
It's that time of year again: The spots of Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata)
The Weedy Species of Sandmats (Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum) in Texas
Nathan Taylor's thesis: Explorations into Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum (Euphorbiaceae) in the trans-Pecos region of Texas with a focus on the Fendleri Clade (I know, the title is very long)
Madagascar Species
Baja California Peninsula hub
Section Crepidaria:

Subgenus Esula:
Subgenus Esula explained
California Euphorbs of subgenus Esula
Texas Euphorbias, Subgenus Esula
Notes on cyathia with 5 glands

Section Poinsettia:
Basic explaination of the Christmas Poinsettia
Poinsettia cyathia explaination

Section Nummulariopsis:
Section Nummulariopsis

State specific resources (not comprehensive and in progress)
Alabama:
Alabama Euphorbia species
Arizona:
City Spurges - Tucson
California:
Jepson eFlora
California Euphorbs of subgenus Esula
Calflora
City Spurges - San Diego
Florida:
Florida Euphorbia species
Atlas of Florida Plants
Section Nummulariopsis
New Mexico:
The status of the genus Chamaesyce in New Mexico
Texas:
Texas Euphorbia species list
The Weedy Species of Sandmats (Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum) in Texas
City Spurges - DFW area
Sandmats (Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum, previously Chamaesyce) of the Llano Estacado
Texas Euphorbias, the Tithymaloids
Nathan Taylor's thesis: Explorations into Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum (Euphorbiaceae) in the trans-Pecos region of Texas with a focus on the Fendleri Clade (I know, the title is very long)

Outside North America
New Zealand Plant Conservation Network
NZ Flora (27 species listed)
European Euphorbia checklist - found here

References*
*Note that this is taken directly from my annotated reference list and is incomplete (there are many more that I have referenced and several of those below I have not completely read, especially those in other languages). Also, many of the citations are incomplete or are not consistantly formated. It is likely too long to be of much use here, but at least it can be referanced if anyone wonders where I am getting my information.

MY EUPHORBIA PUBLICATIONS
Master's Thesis: Explorations into Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum (Euphorbiaceae) in the trans-Pecos region of Texas with a focus on the Fendleri Clade
Felger, R.S., S. Rutman, & N.C. Taylor. 2015. Ajo Peak to Tinajas Altas: A flora of southwestern Arizona. Part 13. Eudicots: Euphorbiaceae. Phytoneuron 2015:1–65..
Taylor, N.C. & M. Terry. 2015. Euphorbia abramsiana (Euphorbiaceae): New to Texas. Phytoneuron 2015-24:1–7. ISSN 2153 733X
Taylor N.C. & M. Terry. 2016. Euphorbia cryptorubra (Euphorbiaceae), a new species in Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce section Anisophyllum from Texas, U.S.A. and Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10:1–9.
Atha, D., Levine, E., and Taylor, N. 2018. First report of Euphorbia hypericifolia (Euphorbiaceae) for New York state. Phytoneuron 2018-74: 1–4.
Mickley, J.G. and Taylor, N. In progress. Occurrence of Thymeleaf Sandmat Euphorbia serpillifolia Persoon (Euphorbiaceae) in Vermont.

TAXONOMY, DESCRIPTIONS, FLORAS, AND MAPS
Bentham, G. 1844. The botany of the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur. Smith, Elder and Co., London, UK. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/15490
Berry, P.E., V. Steinmann, & Y. Yang. 2011. Proposal to conserve the name Euphorbia acuta Engelm. against E. acuta Bellardi ex Colla (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 60:603–604.
Berry, P.E., J.A. Peirson, J.J. Morawetz, V.W. Steinmann, R. Riina, Y. Yang, D. Geltman, & N.I. Cacho. 2016. Euphorbia. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 12. New York and Oxford.
Blake, S.F. 1922. New plants from Guatemala and Honduras. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Vol. 24, part 1.
Boissier, E. 1860. Centuria Euphorbiarum. Société de physique et d'histoire naturelle de Genève.
Boissier, E. 1862. Euphorbia sect. Anisophyllum. In A.P. de Candolle [ed.], Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, vol. 15, part 2, 11–52. Victor Masson & Fils, Paris, France.
Brown, N.E. 1911. Euphorbia. In Flora of tropical Africa vol. 6. [Authors for Euphorbiaceae: N.E. Brown, J. Hutchinson, & D. Prain]
Brown, N.E. 1925. Euphorbia. In Flora Capensis vol. 5, section 2. [Authors for Euphorbiaceae: N.E. Brown, J. Hutchinson, & D. Prain]
Burch, D. 1965. A taxonomic revision of the genus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) in the Caribbean. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
Burch, D. 1965. Two species of Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) new to the United States. Rhodora 67:185–186.
Burch, D. 1966. The application of the Linnaean names of some New World species of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce. Rhodora 68:155–166.
Burch, D. 1966. Two new species of Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae), new combinations, and a key to the Caribbean members of the genus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 53:90–99.
Burch, D. 1969. Notes on the Galapagos Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 56:173–178.
Burger, W. & M. Huft. 1995. Flora Costaricensis: Family #113 Euphorbiaceae. Fieldiana: Botany No. 36.
Carr, W.R. & M.H. Mayfield. 1993. Chamaesyce velleriflora (Euphorbiaceae) new to Texas. Sida 15:550–551.
Carter, S. 1979. Some new Euphorbia species from East Africa. Kew Bulletin 35:413–421. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4114592
Carter, S. 1983. New taxa and notes on herbaceous species of Euphorbia from East and Northeast Africa. Kew Bulletin 39:643–652. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4108605
Carter, S. 1989. New taxa and taxonomic changes amongst herbaceous Euphorbia species from southern tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 45:327–337. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4115690
Carter, S. & L.C. Leach. 2001. Euphorbiaceae part 2. Flora Zambesiaca Vol. 9 part 5.
Carter, S. & A.R. Smith. 1988. Euphorbiaceae (Part 2). Flora of Tropical East Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, England.
Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas.
Croizat, L. 1943. Novelties in American Euphorbiaceae. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 24:165–189.
Croizat, L. 1945. “Euphorbia chamaesyce” in the United States. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 72:312–318.
Farwell, O.A. 1936. Euphorbia pilulifera in Michigan. Rhodora 38:331–332.
Fawcett, W. & A.B. Rendle. 1910. Flora of Jamaica: Euphorbia. William Clowes and Sons, London.
Felger, R.S., S. Rutman, & N.C. Taylor. 2015. Ajo Peak to Tinajas Altas: A flora of southwestern Arizona. Part 13. Eudicots: Euphorbiaceae. Phytoneuron 2015:1–65.
Fernald, M.L. 1936. Dates of publication of Rydberg’s Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains. Rhodora 38:329–331. Only cited here because of another citation.
Florence, J. 1996. Gallicae Polynesiae florae Praecursores. 1. Nouveautés taxonomiques dans les Euphorbiaceae, Piperaceae et Urticaceae. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Section B, Adansonia. sér. 4, Botanique Phytochimie 18:239–274.
Forbes, F.B. & W.B. Hemsley. 1889. Enumeration of all the plants known from China proper, Formosa, Hainan, the Corea, the Luchu archipelago, and the island of Hongkong; together with their distribution and synonymy. The Journal of the Linnaen Society 26:1–592.
Forster, P.I. & R.J.F. Henderson. 1995. New combinations in Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) from Queensland, Australia. Novon 5:323–324.
Frajman, B. 2011. R. Hand (ed.). Supplementary notes to the Flora of Cyprus VII: Key to the species of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce from Cyprus. Willdenowia 41:346
Gage, A.T. 1914. New Euphorbiaceae from India and Malaya. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) 1914:236–241.
Gray, S.F. 1821. A natural arrangement of British plants, 2. Baldwin, London.
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https://archive.org/details/FloraOfWestTropi00hutc [Not sure if cited correctly. Cited in Bolaji et al. (2014), as: J. Hutchinson, J.M. Dalziel S.W.I., in: , second ed., Floral of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 1 Crown Agent of Overseas Governments and Administrations. Mill Bank, London, 1954, pp. 417e422 Part 1. p.]
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Ulloa, C.U., P. Acevedo-Rodríguez, S. Beck, M.J. Belgrano, R. Bernal, P.E. Berry, L. Brako, M. Celis, G. Davidse, R.C. Forzza, S.R. Gradstein, O. Hokche, B. León, S. León-Yánez, R.E. Magill, D.A. Neill, M. Nee, P.H. Raven, H. Stimmel, M.T. Strong, J.L. Villaseñor, J.L. Zarucchi, F.O. Zuloaga, P.M. Jørgensen. 2017. An Integrated Assessment of the Vascular Plants Species of the Americas. Science 358:1614-1617. doi/10.1126/science.aao0398 [not cited in database]
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Warnock, B.H. 1974. Wildflowers of the Guadalupe Mountains and the sand dune country, Texas. Sul Ross State University. [Species list: E. albomarginata, E. arizonica (photo E. setiloba), E. astyla (photo E. fendleri), E. carunculata, E. geyeri var. wheeleriana, E. glyptosperma, E. missurica, E. parryi, E. serpillifolia, E. serrula, E. stictospora (photo probably E. prostrata), E. villifera (photo E. serrula),]
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Wheeler, L.C. 1934b. Euphorbia on Guadalupe Island. Leaflets of Western Botany 1:128.
Wheeler, L.C. 1935. Euphorbia capitellata, its synonymy and range. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 62:537–538.
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Wheeler, L.C. 1936b. Revision of the Euphorbia polycarpa group of the Southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico, a preliminary treatment. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:397–416, 429–450. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2480946
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DISCUSSIONS ON EUPHORBIACEAE ONLY
Webster, G.L. 1994. Synopsis of the genera and suprageneric taxa of Euphorbiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81:33–144.

THE CYATHIUM
Brown, R. 1818. Observations on the natural family of plants called Compositae. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 12:76–142.
Croizat, L. 1936. On the classification of Euphorbia. I. How important is the cyathium? Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:525–531.
Narbona, E., P.L. Ortiz, & M. Arista. 2002. Functional andromonoecy in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae). Annals of Botany 89:571–577. Not Read!
Prenner, G. & P.J. Rudall. 2007. Comparative ontogeny of the cyathium in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) and its allies: Exploring the organ, flower, inflorescence boundary. American Journal of Botany 94:1612–1629.
Prenner, G., N.I. Cacho, D. Baum, & P.J. Rudall. 2010. Is LEAFY a useful marker gene for the flower-inflorescence boundary in the Euphorbia cyathium? Journal of Experimental Botany 62:345–350.

SEEDS
Jordan, M.S. & W.J. Hayden. 1992. A survey of mucilaginous testa in Chamaesyce. Collectanea Botanica 21:79–89.
Pahlevani, A. & H. Akhani. 2011. Seed morphology of Iranian annual species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 167:212–234.

SEEDLINGS
Hayden, W.J. 1988. Ontogeny of the cotyledonary region of Chamaesyce maculata (Euphorbiaceae). American Journal of Botany 75:1701–1713.

EUPHORBIA S.L. STRUCTURE
Bauer, G. S.N. Gorb, M.C. Klein, A. Nellesen, M. Tapavicza, & T. Speck. 2014. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species. Plos One 9:e113336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336
Gunawardana, M., E.R. Hyde, S. Lahmeyer, B.L. Dorsey, T.P. La Val, M. Mullen, J. Yoo, R. Knight, & M.M. Baum. 2015. American Journal of Botany 102:1966–1977.

PHYLOGENETICS
Bruyns, P.V., R.J. Mapaya, & T. Hedderson. 2006. A new subgeneric classification of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) based on ITS and psbA–trnH sequence data. Taxon 55:397–420. doi:10.2307/25065587
Horn, J. W., B. W. van Ee, J. J. Morawetz, R. Riina, V. W. Steinmann, P. E. Berry, & K. J. Wurdack. 2012. Phylogenetics and the evolution of major structural characters in the giant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63:305–326. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.12.022.
Horn, J. W., Z. Xi, R. Riina, J. A. Peirson, Y. Yang, B. L. Dorsey, P. E. Berry, C. C. Davis, & K. J. Wurdack. 2014. Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway. Evolution 68:3485–3504.
Park, K.R., & R.K. Jansen. 2007. A phylogeny of Euphorbieae subtribe Euphorbiinae (Euphorbiaceae) based on molecular data. Journal of Plant Biology 50:644–649. doi:10.1007/BF03030608
Steinmann, V.W. & J.M. Porter. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae) based on ITS and ndhF sequence data. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89:453–490.
Yang, Y. & P. Berry. 2011. Phylogenetics of the Chamaesyce Clade (Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae): Reticulate evolution and long-distance dispersal in a prominent C4 lineage. American Journal of Botany 98:1486–1503. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000496
Yang, Y., R. Riina, J.J. Morawetz, T. Haevermans, X. Aubriot, & P.E. Berry. 2012. Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 61:764–789. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41679308
Zimmermann, N.F.A., C.M. Ritz, & F.H. Hellwig. 2010. Further support for the phylogenetic relationships within Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) from nrITS and trnL–trnF IGS sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 286:39–58. doi:10.1007/s00606-010-0272-7
E. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS AND ANATOMY
Aldhebiani, A. & S. Jury. 2013. Anatomical studies on the genus Euphorbia L. Saudi Arabia (Subgenera: Triucalli, Ermophyton, Esula and Chamaesyce). International Research Journal of Plant Science. 4:168–191. Several good references.
Batanouny, K.H., W. Stichler, & H. Ziegler. 1991. Photosynthetic pathways and ecological distribution of Euphorbia species in Egypt. Oecologia 87:565–569.
Christin, P.A., T.L. Sage, E.J. Edwards, R.M. Ogburn, R. Khoshravesh, & R.F. Sage. 2010. Complex evolutionary transitions and the significance of C3–C4 intermediate forms of photosynthesis in Molluginaceae. Evolution 65:643–660.
Kadereit, G., K. Bohley, M. Lauterbach, D.T. Tefarikis, & J.W. Kadereit. 2017. C3–C4 intermediates may be of hybrid origin – a reminder. New Phytologist 215:70–76.
Kakkar, L. & G.S. Paliwal. 1972. Studies on the leaf anatomy of Euphorbia: V. Epidermis. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy Part B Biological Sciences 40:55–67.
Webster, G.L., W.V. Brown, & B.N. Smith. 1975. Systematics of photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways in Euphorbia. Taxon 24:27–33.
Herbst, D. 1971. Disjunct foliar veins in Hawaiian Euphorbias. Science 171:1247–1248.

OTHER
Asgarpour, R., R. Ghorbani, M. Khajeh-Hosseini, E. Mohammadvand, & B.S. Chauhan. 2015. Germination of Spotted Spurge (Chamaesyce maculata) seeds in response to different environmental factors. Weed Science 63:502–510.
Čarni, A. & L. Mucina. 1998. Vegetation of trampled soil dominated by C4 plants in Europe. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:45–56.
Ernst, M., O.M. Grace, C.H. Saslis-Lagouakis, N. Nilsson, H.T. Simonsen, & N. Rønsted. 2015. Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 196:90–101.
Moerman, D.E. 1998. Native American ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Porcher, R.D. & D.A. Rayner. 2002. A guide to the wildflowers of South Carolina. Columbia.
Papers on organisms found on Euphorbia:
Evans, G.A. & A. Polaszek. 1997. Additions to the Encarsia parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) of the Bemisia tabaci-complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 87:563–571. Larvae on Chamaesyce leaves.
Fischer, E. W. Lobin, & J. Mutke. 2011. Striga barthlottii (Orobanchaceae), a new parasitic species from Morocco. Willdenowia 41:51–56. On succulent Euphorbias.

CHROMOSOMAL STUDIES
Keil, D.J. 1976. Chromosome numbers for Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) from western North America. Madroño 23:405–408.
Urbatsch, L.E., J.D. Bacon, R.L. Hartman, M.C. Johnston, T.J. Watson Jr., & G.L. Webster. 1975. Chromosome numbers for North American Euphorbiaceae. American Journal of Botany 62:494–500.

CYATHIAL STUDIES
Brown, R. 1818. Observations on the natural family of plants called Compositae. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 12:76–142.
Croizat, L. 1936. On the classification of Euphorbia. I. How important is the cyathium? Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:525–531.
Narbona, E., P.L. Ortiz, & M. Arista. 2002. Functional andromonoecy in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae). Annals of Botany 89:571–577. Not Read!
Prenner, G. & P.J. Rudall. 2007. Comparative ontogeny of the cyathium in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) and its allies: Exploring the organ, flower, inflorescence boundary. American Journal of Botany 94:1612–1629.
Prenner, G., N.I. Cacho, D. Baum, & P.J. Rudall. 2010. Is LEAFY a useful marker gene for the flower-inflorescence boundary in the Euphorbia cyathium? Journal of Experimental Botany 62:345–350.
Wheeler, L.C. 1936. Revision of the Euphorbia polycarpa group of the Southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico, a preliminary treatment. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:397–416, 429–450. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2480946

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Arcata Marsh - April 14, 2019

At around 2:00 me and my partner met up and left campus. We arrived at the Arcata Marsh and Wildlife Refuge at 2:07. The weather was nice and clear, the temperature was 56 degrees Fahrenheit. We arrived at the avocet observation point at 2:18. The tide looked very low and the only birds we saw were ducks. We arrived at our tree at 2:34 and recorded data as well as taking the required pictures. At 3:00 we left the Arcata Marsh and arrived back on campus at around 3:15.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 05:29 AM por darianabarrett darianabarrett | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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Kaipatiki Creek Restoration site

This locality describes a site mapped at the bottom of this page
- https://inaturalist.nz/projects/kaipatiki-creek-restoration-project-1997-2001

The site is approx 2km long and from about 50-100m wide, of truly wild coastal lowland forest, the natives competing on the whole successfully with the pines, wattles and tree privets and woolly nightshades in its canopy, assisted by some ringbarking and felling of the weed trees 20-30 years ago. Lancewood was the first species to arise after existing vegetation was burned off sometime about the 1950s, according to a local resident in 1998. Council aerial photos show the whole site, and several miles around, almost entirely bare in 1963. (see googleearth's "History" tab)

The regenerating forest and the weeds shepherd the NorthWestern arm of the Kaipatiki Creek from the bottom of a steep hill covered in roads and houses, through saltmarsh folowed by manawa beds beneath steep cliffs, to be joined by the Eastern arm of the Kaipatiki Stream emerging from the lower end of Eskdale Forest. This estuary joins a number of others in one of the winding tendrils of the upper Waitemata Harbour.

Observations of the site are grouped geographically in approximately 60 sub-sites or "Zones", roughly defined in 1997-99 to enable filing of photos in geographical proximity to illustrate the distinct character of each area and its visible change over time.

The entire site was seen by specialists and restoration volunteers in 1997-99 as a whole, living environment, with distinct but interconnected ecologies of coastal cliff, saltmarsh, coastal and streamside forest, on the banks of a Waitemata sandstone sedimentary stream fluid and everchanging in the upstream area, deeply and delicately carved further downstream, broadening and slowing into tidal saltmarsh before the estuary.

The nature and potential of its various habitats was pointed out to volunteers by enthusiasts, technical officers and academics, despite much of the streamside at that time being grass, herb, shrub and tree weeds, with a hundred years of inorganic refuse both in and around the stream.

A few local residents shared memories of swimming, whitebaiting, or catching freshwater crayfish in a large pool at the bottom of Easton Park Parade in the 1970s, but in 1997, the pool was long been piped and a road built over it. The community in general saw the stream and its banks as "a stormwater drain", "rubbish tip", and "eyesore that should be concreted over".

Shortly after the restoration began, it was learned that road construction was planned along the entire downstream half of the stream, culminating in the construction of a road bridge cross the estuay, for the creation of a mass transit road accommodating a possible future harbour crossing.

For all the above reasons, the entire current and proposed roadside and stream were included in the restoration project despite the lack of volunteers to undertake it all, establishing, by massive weed and rubbish removal, the natural heritage value and interconnection of habitats throughout the site.

With the encouragement and assistance of Forest and Bird and North Shore City Council, the Restoration Project also submitted successfully to the Resource Consent process, achieving some environmental improvements in the design and construction process and the goodwill and support of Council and contractors, with whom the community group liaised and collaborated throughout road planning and construction.

The 7 days a week manual restoration of streamsides by a community volunteer group was locally and nationally funded and conducted from 1997-2000 or later, , guided by advice from professional specialists and amateur experts including a Forest and Bird botanist, Auckland Museum Botany Department, Natural Heritage, Biosecurity, Stormwater, and Water Pollution advisors of Auckland Regional Council Environment, Oratia Native Plant nurseries, and NZ Native Freshwater Fish society volunteers, with path construction, arborism and refuse removal by North Shore City Council.

The forest has continued to grow and diversify, the planted trees along the roadedge are now 6-8m high providing almost continuous canopy from roadside to streamside, and there is now established public access to and enjoyment of both the roadside bush path beside the estuary and lower stream, and the "Native Plant Trail" through the forest in the upstream area.

Of particular interest in the current survey of the whole site, where accessible, is the type and degree of wild regeneration both within the forest and among the planted trees, the integration of the planting with the wild regeneration, habitat extension and continuity, the impact of public access to the forest interior and along its planted margin, and current threats to the health and biodiversity of both wild and planted areas.

Archive Photos:
Photos in Project observations from that period are low-res (138kb!) files created with a Sony Mavica digital camera, which used floppy discs, allowing storage of up to a hundred or so images on one battery charge, compared with the 12-15 image limit of other contemporary digital cameras.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 04:53 AM por kaipatiki_naturewatch kaipatiki_naturewatch | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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First Progress report

This report has been presented in individual posts for each of the items below. Those posts, along with some others created during the writing of this report, can be accessed via links at the top right of this page, "First Progress report".

Links to subsequent and prior posts appear ni the same postion at the top of each page as you view the posts.

First priorities since the Project became funded have been:

1. to produce a Health and Safety Plan as required by both RENH funding Agreement and our Landowner Approval Agreement with Auckland council. This will ideally one that will allow us to confidently include other participants in this Project.

2. to identify and define suitable sites for trial of Tradescantia control

3. to identify and mark tree/shrub juveniles for monitoring of control by partial breaking of stems

4. to liaise and ensure collaboration with land managers, volunteers and contractors involved in the site as required by both RENH funding Agreement and our Auckland Council Landowner Approval Agreement

5. to cordon a Tradescantia trial site both to meet Land Use Agreement requirements of obstructing public access and to safeguard the site from accidental entry and consequent trampling, by public, volunteers or reserve users

6. to undertake Initial Survey of the 1997-2000 Kaipatiki Creek Restoration site, ie streambed, banks and adjacent forest to borders of private land where possible

7. to plan and commence tradescantia control for best results in the given sites

8. unexpectedly, to report sewage overflow from manholes along the length of the stream

9. to collect refuse and litter encountered during site work and place in or at rubbish bin for pick up by regular contractor, and to call Council Call Centre to request pick up of larger items as required..

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 04:53 AM por kaipatiki_naturewatch kaipatiki_naturewatch | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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First Progress Report - 1. Health and Safety Plan

The Council recently provided a seminar on Risk Assessment and Management for Reserve volunteers. We attended this as a Reserve volunteer, and found it very useful, practical and on the whole encouraging.

We had prepared a list of hazards for the activites and the site, but found it did not fit the Low Risk category due to the high, steep and in places unstable banks, sink holes and hidden crevasses. We have delayed contracting a companion - surveyor, or allowing the participation of a keen potential volunteer, until we have clarified how these risks should be managed for people leaving the public footpaths.

In the interim, we have also learned that herbicides are sprayed several times a year on the soft-surface path within the forest. We now need to learn what chemicals are used, their uptake by other plants, soil and water, and life in the soil and in plant material, in order to avoid contact with contaminated soil and plant material, or the introduction of contaminated material to healthy areas.

Council and Ventia have been contacted for more information and we will complete our H & S Planning once we have the necessary understanding.

Helpful communication has been received from allaboutpeople.co.nz, who ran the Council volunteer seminar. With their kind advice and offer of review, we hope to produce an H&S plan so we can plan operations and facilitate the participation of others with confidence.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 04:52 AM por kaipatiki_naturewatch kaipatiki_naturewatch | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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First Progress Report - 2. to identify and define suitable sites for trial of Tradescantia control

This had to be done by exploration, as the Tradescantia hides all manner of unknown contours and artefacts, and can't be walked through without careful observation for hidden vulnerable native vegetation.

Tradescantia is dominant over much of the streambank from Easton Park Parade to Rimu Pool (downstream of Stanley Rd), a distance of approx 1km. However, most of this length is too steep to access regularly in all seasons, especially those areas raised and/or steepened with roading fill in 1999.

The area selected for this Trial is therefore approx 60mx50m of roadside streambank opposite Glenfield College tennis courts. This is readily accessible from the roadside or the Native Plant Trail (signposted at the its entry beside the North Shore City Council site-interpretation sign). The upper part of this streambank was roughly indicated with map and photos in our funding application to RENH.

A pleasing challenge to finding an accessible site is that in the 18 years since we were fully acquainted with the Stream as a whole, much of the streambank is no longer accessible except to the intrepid adventurer, due to its now dense understorey.

Further downstream, artificially raised banks and retaining walls have also limited access in places, but in the Trial site the obstacle is solely the intensification of wild native regeneration. The pioneer ponga, mamaku, wheki, ti kouka, mahoe, kanuka have matured and increased, and are now interwoven with a replication of the streamside understorey of kiekie, karamu, kanono, hangehange, mapou, Parsonsia heterophylla, kiokio and huruhuruwhenua, along with many juveniles of the pioneer species.

Such dense, lush streamside vegetation was seen in 1997 only in places, mainly on the Witheford Drive side of the stream edge, and the patches of native vegetation were separated by vast banks of kikuyu, ginger, montbretia, with scattered wattles and pines, alpng with Elaeagnus regrowth and numerous dead Eleagnus and pampas following a 3-man, 3 week chemical control operation in 1997 just before the volunteer manual restoration began.

Many photo observations have been made of the Tradescantia Trial site pre-intervention and following first interventions, and are being assembled to illustrate the methods and effects of the Trial Methodology over the remainder of 2019.

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 04:52 AM por kaipatiki_naturewatch kaipatiki_naturewatch | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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First Progress Report - 3. to identify and mark tree/shrub juveniles for monitoring of control by partial breaking of stems

Some tree privet and Eleagnus were partially broken down during informal survey of the roadside canopy margin in 2018, as an ad hoc intervention to release adjacent juvenile native trees. The results are interesting, and the method has been used, and continues to be closely monitored, at our volunteer trial project site "Gahnia Grove", in Eskdale Reserve.

We have marked with orange tape some of the specimens in Witheford Reserve treated this way in 2018, and added some new examples. The technique has been shown to the Wildlands team manager in anticipation of their annual Ecocontract weed control operation this week. The information was supportively received and we look forward to sharing results of this collaboration.

In an example of similar collaboration, we are pleased to now have documentation of a brush wattle c. 15cm diameter, felled June 2018 in Gahnia Grove by Wildlands without chemicals or further intervention at our request, the stump now demonstrably dead and decaying.
https://inaturalist.nz/observations/21645538

Publicado em 26 de abril de 2019, 04:51 AM por kaipatiki_naturewatch kaipatiki_naturewatch | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário
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