20 de julho de 2020

Psyllid species on BugGuide but not yet on iNat

BugGuide has long reigned supreme in terms of nearctic psyllid representation but iNat has closed the gap recently. This list details a few species that iNat observers have yet to document.

APHALARIDAE (26/29 bugguide species)

  1. Aphalara monticola
  2. Aphalara persicaria
    Notes: Aphalara spp. are difficult to ID from photos. I can't confirm the ID of the A. monticola specimen on Bugguide, and it is unlikely that Aphalara species on iNat may be identified without a good shot of the genitalia. iNat should aim for more Aphalara observations (we only have 16) but species ID shouldn't be expected.

  3. Pachypsylla cohabitans - Inquiline Hackberry Leaf Gall Psyllid
    Notes: Similar to other leaf-galling Pachypsylla, but supposedly distinguishable by the green abdomen (as opposed to brown), which may be difficult to see in photos. Additionally, this species does not create galls of its own but instead inhabits galls of other Pachypsylla species. Particularly lumpy celtidismamma galls may house multiple cells in which the inquiline species may inhabit.

HOMOTOMIDAE (2/2 bugguide species - great!)

CALOPHYIDAE (7/7 bugguide species - great!)

LIVIIDAE (11/13 bugguide species)

  1. Livia bifasciata
    Notes: Look for galls on Juncus canadensis in the northeastern US and Canada

  2. Livia saltatrix
    Notes: On sedges in northeastern US and Canada

PSYLLIDAE (60/64 bugguide species)

  1. Heteropsylla huasachae
    Notes: Probably already on iNat. Difficult to ID from photos.

  2. Amorphicola pallida
    Notes: Look for these on Amorpha canescens in the midwest.

  3. Cacopsylla sinuata
    Notes: A willow psyllid from northern US and Canada. The willow-feeding Cacopsylla are very difficult and often impossible to identify without examination of the genitalia; iNat has many observations of willow-feeding Cacopsylla but further ID is unlikely. Of the 24 species of Cacopsylla identified on bugguide, this is the only one absent on iNat, which is pretty impressive (and actually, iNat has two additional Cacopsylla spp. that bugguide does not).

  4. Psylla betulaenanae
    Notes: A circumpolar species found on dwarf birch, Betula nana. The nymphs are similar to other Psylla spp and are often accompanied by white fluff, which is often the most conspicuous way to find them. There is one observation on iNat which I suspect to be this species.

TRIOZIDAE (27/34 bugguide species)

  1. Bactericera athenae
    Notes: A little-known species similar to B. antennata. The hostplant and full range of the species is unknown.

  2. Calinda longicaudata
    An easily recognizable southwestern psyllid on Baccharis pteronioides

  3. Ceropsylla sideroxyli
    A southern Florida specie. The white waxy shelters that the nymphs build on Sideroxylon leaves are very conspicuous, and I would not be surprised if these have been inadvertently photographed and filed somewhere on iNat already.

  4. Hemitrioza sonchi
    A fascinating species unlike any other in the nearctic fauna. Found in the eastern US on Sonchus, apparently

  5. Neotriozella pyrifola
    An eastern US species in a genus most easily recognized by form of the genal cones. No host plant has ever been formally recorded, but the bugguide collection was taken from Styrax, and that host should probably be investigated further.

  6. Trioza aylmeriae
    An amelanchier-feeding psyllid in the northern US and Canada

  7. Trioza quadripunctata
    A very well-marked nettle-feeding psyllid. While the other north american nettle feeding species Trioza albifrons is well-represented on iNat, this one has yet to be recorded.

Of the 149 psyllid species represented on bugguide, iNat has all but sixteen. iNat similarly has 11 nearctic species that are unrepresented on bugguide. In total about 160 species are represented across both platforms, which accounts for roughly half of the nearctic fauna.

Publicado em 20 de julho de 2020, 09:00 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

30 de junho de 2020

Resolution of the taxonomy of the Syzigium Leaf Psyllid (plus taxon swap help requested)

A new paper published recently has confirmed what many of us have suspected: the Syzigium Leaf Psyllid in California is not Trioza eugeniae, and that name has been misapplied for about three decades. The correct identification for these psyllids is Trioza adventicia. Both species are recognized as valid, with Trioza eugeniae being recognized as native to southern NSW and Trioza adventicia distributed in eastern subcoastal Australia but widely introduced throughout Australia, New Zealand, and California.

On iNat, all observations currently attributed to Trioza eugeniae should instead be Trioza adventicia. There do not appear to be any examples of legitimate Trioza eugeniae yet identified.

What is the best way to handle this change? Taxon swap Trioza adventicia for Trioza eugeniae, but then re-erect Trioza eugeniae? Any assistance in handling this change would be appreciated.

Reference: https://europepmc.org/article/med/31865924

Publicado em 30 de junho de 2020, 05:57 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

09 de abril de 2020


I have not been diligent about checking iNat over the past few weeks and as of today, I have over 2500 unread notifications. While I imagine most of these are simple agreements, I am undoubtedly missing many mentions and I will probably never see them unless they are on an observation currently resting in either fulgoridae or psylloidea. If you have an observation that you'd like me to see, I recommend instead linking it in the comments of this post for the time being.

I hope everyone is safe and healthy.

Publicado em 09 de abril de 2020, 06:07 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário

10 de fevereiro de 2020

Catalina Blacklighting 2019

A summary of all of the times I blacklighted in the Santa Catalina Mountains in the previous year, mainly to help me see which locations and times of the year I neglected so that I can focus on those areas in 2020.

Molino Canyon Vista
Mile 4 Catalina Highway. Oak grassland, 4100 feet
July 12: A lot of interesting small stuff, but I didn't realize until the end of the night that I was using my light's lowest setting all night.
August 15: Conditions were great and the light was very productive, the sheet quickly becoming covered with many insects. But the night was cut short due to a mountain lion scare, and in total I was only out for about an hour.
September 22: Relatively slow and at times very windy, but still pulling in great diversity of mostly small stuff. Joined by @blazeclaw whose observations can be found here

Molino Basin
Mile 5 Catalina Highway. Oak grassland, 4500 feet
June 28: Lots of small stuff, but good diversity. This night was more of a test outing for my new portable usb blacklight (see here), and I was fairly happy with the results. Triatoma also present, and cicadas coming to the light were a mild annoyance.
July 1: Hemiptera and beetles beginning to become more diverse, including the first giant longhorns of the year. The star of the night however was Melacoryphus lateralis, hundreds of which infiltrated my clothes and my car. Triatoma continue to be present as well
July 19: This was a unnique night in that I didn't set up a sheet at all; instead, I just left my light on the ground and observed what beetles came to it, mostly scarabs and Elaterids, and then picked up and drove to a different spot (Bug Spring Trailhead) and did the same.
August 6: Night cut short due to sudden heavy winds and light rain
August 7: Trying again in the same spot after the previous night's failure, this night saw a lot of very large moths as well as good beetle diversity. But the light also attracted an unusually high number of paper wasps as well as a great many burning blister beetles, so I never felt too comfortable.
August 13: Ran into another group blacklighting (with an MV light), which seemed to attract at least a few things I'd never seen before. Also the first Hercules Beetle of the year.

Gordon Hirabayashi Campground
Mile 7 Catalina Highway. Oak grassland, 5000 feet
August 9: I wanted Saturniids this night, and it definitely felt like a good omen when the first moth to the sheet was a new-to-me Saturniid. However, no more came. Looking beyond that minor disappointment, though, this was a very good night.
August 12: Fantastic night especially for beetles and click beetles in particular.
September 3 -4: A great night especially for moths.
September 5: A good night for moths and the last Chrysina sighting of the year.

Bug Spring Trailhead
Mile 7 Catalina Highway. Interior chaparral / oak grassland, 5200 feet
March 21: first blacklighting of the year. Overall low diversity, mostly macromoths and not much else.
March 25: slightly higher diversity, but still mostly macromoths. However, the most abundant insects were these tiny green mirids.
June 4: First good blacklighting night of the year. Good diversity of moths , plus FOTY fireflies, antlions, and fishflies. Also the first Triatoma
June 20: Good diversity of mostly moths.
July 19: See commentary under Molino Basin, July 19
September 12: Good diversity, but most of the colorful monsoon moths and large beetles have disappeared. Adult mantids more common than usual stalking the light this night.

Bear Canyon Picnic Areas
Mile 11 Catalina Highway. Oak-juniper woodland, 5700 feet
April 18: Low diversity, mostly macromoths, nothing exceptional, probably due to poor conditions.
June 18: Good diversity of mostly moths.
June 24: Good diversity, especially moths including some very interesting taxa appearing for the first time. Joined by @kueda whose observations can be found here
July 3: A great night with many interesting finds, especially small stuff.
July 5: Riding on the success of the previous night, I return to the same location to pick up anything I might have missed and manage to find a few new and interesting things.
July 9: Good night for beetles, especially scarabs and giant longhorns
July 23: National Moth Week with Jeff Babson, but the night was all about the beetles. Great diversity, including the FOTY of large green Chrysina scarabs.
August 1: Great diversity including the FOTY giant saturniid moth.
August 16: A very great moth night.
August 21: A quieter night, mostly moths.
August 26: A fairly good night, especially for moths. Joined by @silversea_starsong whose observations can be found here.
September 11: Good diversity, but most of the colorful monsoon moths and large beetles have disappeared.
September 26: A good night especially for moths, with two different species of glassywing moths showing up in great numbers. 2 different species of phasmids also wandered onto the sheet at the end of the night. Joined by @blazeclaw whose observations can be found here.

Manzanita Vista
Mile 12 Catalina Highway. Interior chaparral, 6300 feet
August 8: Decided to try something new this night in setting up here. The area is dominated by shrubby vegetation such as Brickellia and Manzanita, and there are no tall trees from which to hang a sheet. Instead, I laid out my sheet on the ground and set up my light on a tripod in the center. Surprisingly, fairly high diversity! The openness of the area without heavy obscuration from trees probably makes it a very good location, but to date this is the first and last time I have set up here.

Unnamed pullout
Mile 15.7 Catalina Highway. Oak-pine woodland, 7000 feet
July 8: First time blacklighting this spot; relatively slow night
July 18: Beetles! Especially longhorns, with Prionus being the most common. Some good moths also made an appearance.

Upper Green Mountain Trailhead
Mile 17 Catalina Highway. Oak-pine woodland, 6800 feet
June 6: Good diversity, especially Geometridae. Also FOTY nocturnal longhorns and scarabs.
July 2: Good diversity of mostly moths
August 14: A very good night with high diversity
August 27: A fairly good night for moths. Joineed by @silversea_starsong whose observations can be found here.

March: 2
April: 1
May: 0
June: 6
July: 10
August: 13
September: 6

In total I blacklighted in the Catalinas 38 nights in 2019 with the height of activity in the summer, during which period I would blacklight about once every three nights. The period from March-May in comparison is extremely undersampled, at least in terms of the nocturnal fauna. Weather permitting I hope I can change that in 2020, and maybe shed some light on early-season fliers that I may have missed entirely last year.

And anyone in or visiting the Tucson area that is interested in blacklighting in the Catalinas in 2020 just send me a message, I am always down for social blacklighting especially in these mountains.

Publicado em 10 de fevereiro de 2020, 10:13 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 7 comentários | Deixar um comentário

04 de novembro de 2019

Coverage of the lanternfly genus Pyrops on iNaturalist

Lanternflies, and the genus Pyrops in particular, are in my opinion among the most interesting and charismatic of insects. Large and colorful with bizarre long "snouts", about 67 species are currently recognized. At the end of 2018, 20 of those species were represented on iNat. Almost one year later, iNat now has observations for 29 species, just over 40% of the described diversity, adding 3 species from continental Asia, 3 more from Borneo, 2 from the Philippines and 1 from Sulawesi, bringing the total number of Pyrops observations to over 800.

The most commonly observed Pyrops on iNaturalist is P. candelaria, and for a few reasons. This is easily the most widespread member of the genus, found throughout continental southeast Asia, and it is also the most common member of the genus in a region that has a very large iNat presence: Hong Kong. About 80% of the over 500 observations of Pyrops candelaria are centered around Hong Kong; in contrast, many other Pyrops species are restricted to much more remote regions. Despite being widespread and commonly encountered, as well as being the first Pyrops ever described back in the mid-1700s, there is no common name for this species.

Pyrops candelaria. Sterling Sheehy, some rights reserved (CC-BY)

The second most commonly observed Pyrops on iNaturalist is P. watanabei, but unlike P. candelaria this is not a particularly widespread species. But similar to P. candelaria, this species benefits from being the most common species in a very populous place, in this case Taiwan. Only three species of Pyrops are known from Taiwan, and the country has records of two of the three on iNat. While P. candelaria is found here as well, it is not nearly as dominant as it is in Hong Kong or other parts of continental southeast Asia.

Pyrops watanabei, © 羅忠良, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

While Pyrops is well represented in continental southeast Asia, the majority of species are insular endemics, restricted to just one or more islands of Indonesia, Malaysia, or the Philippines. Among the most well-traveled of these locations is the island of Borneo, which boasts 12 species of Pyrops and fills out the top five of the most observed species on iNat. Borneo has a very unique fauna, and over half of the lanternflies found there are endemic to the island. The Pyrops fauna of Borneo is very well documented on iNat, thanks in large part to the contributions of Chien Lee ( @cclborneo ) and over 70 other observers. Only two species have yet to be observed on iNat from the region. For anyone interested in learning more about the fauna, I recommend the book "A Guide to the Lanternflies of Borneo" by Bosuang et al (2017), which features beautiful photography from @cclborneo and others, or check out all of the observations of Pyrops from Borneo on iNat..

Most commonly observed Pyrops of Borneo. From left to right: Pyrops sultanus, © budak, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC). Pyrops whiteheadi, © Leonid, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC). Pyrops intricatus, © Kinmatsu Lin, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC).

So far, having looked at Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Borneo, we've accounted for 640 of the 827 Pyrops observations on iNaturalist. If we extend the region to also include all of continental Asia as well, then 817 observations are represented covering 24 total species. From continental Asia, iNat is currently missing observations of P. astarte, P. atroalbus, P. itoi, P. jianfenglingensis, P. peguensis, and P. shiinaorum, and from Borneo iNat only needs P. ochracea and P. synavei. In total, iNat has 24 out of 32 species (75%) from the region including continental Asia plus Borneo. Pretty good!

Misc. lanternflies of continental Asia. From left to right: Pyrops viridirostris, © Dr. Vijay Anand Ismavel MS MCh, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC-SA). Pyrops maculatus ssp. delessertii, © Sahana M, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC). Pyrops spinolae, © budak, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC).

But continental Asia plus Borneo only contains less than half of the described Pyrops diversity, and only ten total observations (~1.2%) on iNat fall outside of this region. The Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java are home to 12 endemic species, but iNat only has 7 total observations from this region representing two species total. Across all observations of all species (not just Pyrops), Sumatra only has about 6000 total observations from about 350 observers; compare that to Borneo, which has about 28000 total observations from 1400 observers total.

Lanterflies of Sumatra. From left to right: Pyrops ruehli, © Pasha Kirillov, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC-SA). Pyrops pythicus, © Oscar Johnson, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC-ND).

The island of Sulawesi has an even smaller presence on iNat, with only about 260 total observers. Six endemic Pyrops are found here, but only one singular observation of the genus has ever been made on iNat.

Pyrops valerian, Sulawesi, © imanakbar, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

The final region to consider, with a very high degree of endemism, is the Philippines, where thirteen Pyrops species are known. In contrast to Sumatra and Sulawesi, the Philippines actually has a fairly decent iNat presence, with more total observations and users than Borneo. Despite this, only two Pyrops observations have ever been made here, representing two species (both having been observed in the past 3 months). The lack of Pyrops observations from the Philippines despite the country's high population could be the result of very narrow species distributions, with some species being restricted to particular islands or regions which are not highly populated. Additionally, much of the iNat activity from the Philippines is from marine habitats, and insects are not as commonly observed as they are in Borneo, for example. However, as iNat continues to grow in the Philippines I would expect the representation of lanternflies to grow as well.

Pyrops polillensis, © tiluchi, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

It is wonderful to see more and more of these odd bugs represented on iNaturalist. In the years to come I hope we can see even more species represented, including some of the rare endemics from less documented regions. In the meantime, if you're interested in lanternflies I would definitely suggest checking out what iNaturalist currently has to offer here.

Publicado em 04 de novembro de 2019, 01:28 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 3 comentários | Deixar um comentário

02 de setembro de 2019

it's been 400 days, 6700+ observations of 2000+ species

...since I saw my last earwig. Weird. In the same time span there have been 6500 observations of earwigs worldwide on iNat from over 4500 observers. I remember I used to see earwigs almost daily back when I was living in California.

Publicado em 02 de setembro de 2019, 09:12 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 5 comentários | Deixar um comentário

19 de maio de 2019

New iNat Guide to the lanternfly genus Pyrops

Using iNat's Guides interface, I created what will hopefully be considered to be a useful guide to the genus Pyrops, and what I plan to be the first of many hopper-based guides. Click through to check it out:

Asian Lanternflies of the genus Pyrops


  • Covers all 68 species in the genus
  • Maps for all species
  • Easily sort species by distribution patterns
  • Sort species by Species Group, including a brief synopsis of each group (see diagram below)
  • Easily check which species are illustrated in which publications
  • Easily check which publications are most useful for which regions
  • An annotated bibliography of references, including links to PDFs when available
  • Coming soon:

  • Sort species by forewing pattern, hindwing color, and cephalic process shape/color
  • Pictures for more species not yet on iNat
  • Goals

  • Facilitate easy identification of species by sorting a large genus into more manageable groups
  • Identify gaps in iNaturalist's coverage of species (for example, the genus is very diverse in the Philippines but there are currently no observations there)

  • Fig. 1: Pyrops species groups head detail
    © Arnold Wijker, Gonam, Carmelo López Abad, and Sterling Sheehy, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC)

    Publicado em 19 de maio de 2019, 03:12 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    30 de abril de 2019

    Psyllid species on BugGuide but not yet on iNat

    iNat's representation of psyllid diversity continues to grow, currently represented by 211 species globally and 118 species in North America (about a third of the US fauna). But there are still holes, especially in central/eastern USA as well as Alaska, and 31 nearctic species are still absent on iNat despite being present on BugGuide. Let's fill the gaps!

    Aphalara monticola - western Canada
    Aphalara persicaria - eastern USA
    Craspedolepta angustipennis - widespread on Achillea millefolium
    Craspedolepta schwarzi - Canada and Alaska on Chamaenerion angustifolium
    Craspedolepta suaedae - southwestern USA on Suaeda
    Craspedolepta subpunctata - Canada and Alaska on Chamaenerion angustifolium
    Gyropsylla ilecis - conspicuous gall inducers on Ilex vomitoria from FL to TX. It's possible the galls may already be on iNat but unidentified
    Pachypsylla celtidisinteneris - central US from OH-KS-TX on Celtis
    Pachypsylla cohabitans - widespread eastern US on Celtis - look for very lumpy nipple galls!

    Calophya flavida - eastern USA on Rhus glabra

    Livia bifasciata - northeastern USA and Canada on Juncus canadensis
    Livia maculipennis - northeastern USA and Canada on Juncus acuminatus
    Livia saltatrix - northeastern USA and Canada on Carex
    Livia vernaliforma - western USA on Carex
    Livia vernalis added 5/7/19 by mokennon

    Pseudophacopteron - AZ, FL. Host unknown
    Notes: iNat currently has no photos of this entire family from any region

    Amorphicola pallida - Central USA (IA, MN, KS, NE) on Amorpha canescens
    Cacopsylla fatsiae - CA, BC on Fatsia japonica (introduced)
    Cacopsylla negundinis - NM east to OH north to AB & MB, on Acer negundo
    Cacopsylla ribesiae - Western USA on Ribes
    Cacopsylla sinuata - Canada and Alaska on Salix
    Cacopsylla striata - northern USA and Canada on Betula
    Psylla betulaenanae - Alaska on Betula nana

    Bactericera athenae - FL, KS, IN. Host unknown
    Calinda longicaudata - AZ-TX on Baccharis pteronioides
    Ceropsylla sideroxyli - gall inducer in South Florida on Sideroxylon foetidissimum
    Hemitrioza sonchi - eastern US supposedly on Sonchus arvensis (?)
    Heterotrioza chenopodii - adventive on Chenopodium
    Neotriozella pyrifolii - eastern US, host unknown.
    Trioza aylmeriae - northern US and Canada on Amelanchier
    Trioza quadripunctata - widespread on Urtica

    Publicado em 30 de abril de 2019, 08:29 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    24 de janeiro de 2019

    Identification of Neotropical Nogodinidae

    Nogodinids are a small, odd family of mostly tropical planthoppers, consisting of lacy-winged Ricaniid-like forms as well as opaque-winged Issid-like forms. In the new world, the family is found throughout Central and South America, with a single species adventive in the US (Florida). This post seeks to clarify identification of the "Ricaniid-like" species of the subtribe Nogodinina.

    Above: some examples of neotropical Nogodinidae. Photos © Rich Hoyer ( @birdernaturalist ) some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC-SA)

    While there are not many genera concerned in this group and identification is not complicated, most of the relevant documentation was written in German. Due to this, I produce here in English an illustrated key to the genera of Nogodinina, modified from Schmidt 1919. In Central America, all species will key to either one of the first two genera here; the remaining genera are exclusively South American.

    1a. Four main veins arise from the basal cell (fig 1): Nogodina
    1b. Three main veins arise from the basal cell (fig 2) . . . . . . . . . . 2

    Fig 1: Nogodina venation at basal cell

    Fig 2: Biolleyana venation at basal cell

    2a. Transverse veins in the clavus (fig 3, in red): Biolleyana
    2b. Clavus lacking transverse veins . . . . . . . . . 3

    3a. Tegmina (forewings) 1.5 times as long as wide at the widest point; apical edge truncated; costal edge strongly bent; costal membrane with more than ten transverse nerves (fig 3, in blue). . . . . . . . . .4
    3b. Tegmina twice as long as wide at the widest point, apex not truncated; costal edge not sharply bent; less than 10 transverse nerves in the costal membrane: Orthothyreus

    4a. Medial cell with transverse vein: Neovarcia
    4b. Medial cell lacking transverse vein (fig 3, in yellow): Varciopsis

    Fig 3: Biolleyana pictifrons, © @jsatler, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC), photo modified to highlight veins in the clavus (red), in the costal membrane (blue), and the median cell (yellow)

    As stated above, Central American species will key to either Nogodina (one species) or Biolleyana (three species). All five genera may be found in South America. As the majority of observations on iNat are of the genus Biolleyana though, I present here a simplified key to the species in that genus.

    1a. Transverse veins in costal membrane few (under 15), widely spaced (fig 4): Biolleyana costalis. Costa Rica to Ecuador
    1b. Transverse veins in costal membrane numerous (more than 15), dense (fig 5). . . . . . . . . . 2

    2a. Wings weakly maculated, yellowish; most conspicuous mark a bold spot near the stigma (fig 5): Biolleyana fenestra. Costa Rica to Panama
    2b. Wings heavily maculated with black (fig 3): Biolleyana pictifrons. Mexico to Costa Rica

    Fig 4 (left): Biolleyana costalis; Fig 5 (right): Biolleyana fenestra. Photos © Rich Hoyer ( @birdernaturalist ) some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC-SA)

    I hope this post is useful in differentiating these neotropical hoppers. I intend to create future posts aiming to aid in identification, so if there is anything I can do to clarify things better please let me know! And if you want to see more Nogodinids on iNat, here you go.

    Publicado em 24 de janeiro de 2019, 05:24 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 5 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    05 de janeiro de 2019

    Notes on the Fulgorid genus Amantia

    Amantia is a genus of South American Fulgorid characterized by spotted wings and a broad irregular apical band. This note is to attempt to clarify the recognition of species in the genus and illuminate some issues regarding identification.

    © Luis G Restrepo, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

    4 species have been described in the genus:

    Amantia combusta (Westwood, 1845)
    Amantia imperatoria (Gerstaecker, 1860)
    Amantia magnifica Schmidt, 1910
    Amantia peruana Schmidt, 1910

    A. combusta was described and illustrated by Westwood, available here. A. imperatoria was described and illustrated by Gerstaecker here (fig 7) and again in color by Distant here. The other two species have not been illustrated to my knowledge. Both of those species were described by Schmidt, in German, who then provided a key to the genus. I reproduce here a translated version of that key.

    1a) Costal space of the forewing without spots or with an indistinct one in front of the broad apical band, in the corium and clavus together less than 10 spots, veins in the basal parts strong and looser . . . . . . . 2
    1b) Costal space of the forewings with four round, larger spots, in the corium and clavus together more than ten spots, veins in the basal parts less strong and narrower. . . . . . . 4
    2a) Before the apical margin of the forewings, a broad, angularly broken transverse band, in the corium about six reddish spots distinct . . . . . . . 3
    2b) Forewing black with red veins, the black-lined apical band accompanied by a narrow, brownish yellow band, an angular broken band in front of the apical band is not present, the spots in the Corium are very indistinct. Length 36mm, Bolivia. . . . . . . .A. peruana var. infasciata
    3a) pronotum monochrome, light brownish yellow. The costal space of the forewings without spot, in the corium six and in the clavus four reddish spots clearly. Opaque wing black with red veins, the narrow band in front of the black Apicalsaume(?) is light brownish-yellow and the angularly broken apical band reddish. Basal field of the wings blood red, against the black apical space paler, root black. Length 40mm. Peru . . . . . . .A. peruana
    3b) Pronotum dark green, the rear edge is narrow red-yellow lined. In the costal room of the upper wings, in front of the angularly broken apical fascia, a reddish spot, six reddish spots in the corium; the narrow band in front of the black apical half and the angularly broken apical band pale brownish-yellow and greenish; Basal part black with reddish nerves. Length 32mm. Columbia . . . . . . .A. combusta
    4a) Four spots In the costal space of the forewing, and in the corium and clavus more than twenty (24) ocher-yellow spots; the angular apical band is narrow, a little wider than the band in front of the apical margin, both bands are yellow ocher. The veins are very dense, green and ocher-yellow, on black ground. Apical part of the wings black, basal part golden yellow with a slight reddish tone near the root. Length 35mm. Columbia. . . . . . . . A. magnifica
    4b) Four spots in the costal space of the forewing, and in the corium and clavus together less than twenty (15) ocher spots; the angular apical fascia is interrupted in the middle, and darker ocher-yellow than the bandage in front of the black apex. Basal part of the wings red, apical part black, wing root black. Costa Rica. Panama . . . . . . .A. imperatoria

    Based on the key, it seems the most useful character for diagnosing the species may be the amount of spots on the wing. A summary of that character in particular is given as follows:
    Amantia combusta : 1 red spot on costa, 6 red spots on corium
    Amantia imperatoria : 4 yellow spots in costa, less than 20 (15) yellow spots on rest of wing
    Amantia magnifica : 4 yellow spots in costa, more than 20 (24) yellow spots on rest of wing
    Amantia peruana : No spots in costa, ten red spots on rest of wing

    As of this writing, all Amantia on iNat are identified as being A. combusta. However, based on interpretation of this key, all of the Amantia currently on iNat have 4 spots in the costal area and about 15ish spots in the clavus and corium combined, which takes them to A. imperatoria in Schmidt's key. However, they are not A. imperatoria, which as the original illustrations demonstrate, has the apical band broken, relatively thin, and not nearly as irregular as the other members of this genus. I feel as if there are only two logical conclusions here. Either (1) Schmidt's key is inadequate, and the number of wing spots is not sufficient to diagnose A. combusta, or (2) the iNat observations of Amantia, all from Colombia, represent an undescribed species. I am tempted to lean towards the former interpretation for the time being, but the issue remains unresolved.

    As a final note, I must clarify that I have not yet seen Porion's Catalog of the North American Fulgoridae (1994), and am curious if Amantia is illustrated there. I recommend review of this publication before taking any action on this genus.

    Publicado em 05 de janeiro de 2019, 05:45 AM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 4 comentários | Deixar um comentário