27 de março de 2023

Notes on the identity of Acmonia aegrota and Acmonia spilota, two Fulgorids from South America

The above image from Porion 1994, labeled Acmonia aegrota, depicts a beautiful and unique species, quite different from other Acmonia. It is also not Acmonia aegrota.

Porion 1994, while being a monumental work in terms of new world Fulgoridae, is not without errors. This post seeks to correct one of them to help progress the understanding of this group of insects

Acmonia aegrota was described from Colombia in 1860 by Gerstaecker. The original description, translated to english, includes: "elytra ... almost translucent yellowish green... the basal third part of the broad anterior margin bright red.... The hindwings are ... red over the smaller basal half, otherwise light smoky brown...". Gerstaecker includes the folloing illustration of this species:

While the color characters aren't possible to assess from a black and white illustration, it becomes clear that Gerstaecker's description and illustration of Acmonia aegrota is not in agreement with Porion's interpretation.

A specimen in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin is labeled Acmonia aegrota, and agrees in all respects with Gerstaecker's description. This is the correct interpration of the species:

The question then becomes, if the species pictured in Porion 1994 is not Acmonia aegrota, what is it? Costa Lima 1942, in Insetos de Brasil, helps provide an answer, with this image labeled Acmonia maculata:

Gerstaecker again incudes a description of Acmonia maculata. Translated to english, "head, thorax, and elytra ochraceous-black variegated... [hind]wings black brown, base pale blue-marked, a small hyaline spot". Metcalf 1947 includes Acmonia maculata as a synonym of Acmonia spilota, and several specimens of Acmonia spilota are again present in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin:

Based on these things, the correct interpretation of Acmonia aegrota sensu Porion 1994 should be Acmonia spilota.

Posted on 27 de março de 2023, 11:09 AM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

21 de março de 2023

The Fulgoridae of South Africa: the subfamilies Strongylodematinae and Lyncidinae

Capenopsis from South Africa © Gigi Laidler, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

The Fulgoridae of South Africa is made up of 4 components, the most unique and unusual of which is a group of tiny brachypterous species which resemble (and were formerly treated as) Orgeriine Dictyopharids. These species, now referred to the Fulgorid subfamilies Strongylodematinae and Lyncidinae, are almost entirely endemic to South Africa, with the exception of a single species described from the island of Mayotte north of Madagascar. That species is not treated here.

Fennah (1962, 1967) described and illustrated most of the species, and an additional species was described by Emeljanov 2007. The following illustrations are taken from those publications and reorganized for convenience. The original publications should be consulted for complete descriptions.

Risius gibbus Fennah, 1967

Risius astyanax Fennah, 1967

Risius palamedes Fennah, 1967

Risius spurcus Stål, 1859

Risius patroclus Fennah, 1967

Risius darwini Fennah, 1962

Risius limonias Fennah, 1967

Risius omega Fennah, 1967

Risius porrectus Fennah, 1967

Risius belona Fennah, 1967

Capenopsis minos Fennah, 1962

Capenopsis horvathi Melichar, 1912

Capenopsis krameri Synave, 1969

Capocles podlipaevi Emeljanov, 2007

Capocles socrates (Fennah, 1967) type species

Codon adrastus Fennah, 1967

Codon praestana Fennah, 1962

Strongylodemas breviceps Fennah, 1962

Strongylodemas circulare Stål, 1855 type species

Strongylodemas retarius Fennah, 1967

Tecmar pausanias Fennah, 1962

Posted on 21 de março de 2023, 12:29 PM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 comentários | Deixar um comentário

17 de março de 2023

Very preliminary notes on the Zanna of Africa with photos of 17 species

Zanna is a genus of large planthoppers found throughout Africa and Asia. In Africa, Zanna is the most commonly encountered genus of Fulgorids (and will probably remain so until the genus is inevitably removed from the family Fulgoridae). 24 species are known from Africa, but the genus is in major need of a modern revision. In absence of that, the images here from the entomology collection at the NHM London are meant to present an introduction to the genus in Africa and its complexities, but are not meant to be diagnostic. Only 17/24 species are pictured, and other factors such as the shape of the cephalic process in lateral view, the range, and the characters detailed in the original descriptions should also be considered when attempting to identify African Zanna, . A key to the genus does not exist, and identification to species level of most Zanna is discouraged until a more complete understanding of the genus can be made.

Species with hindwings completely black

Zanna tenebrosa (Fabricius, 1775) (including as a synonym Zanna madagascarensis, sometimes treated as a distinct species)

Zanna natalensis Distant, 1893 (note: this species may have been synonomized with tenebrosa, but I cannot find the source of this if it is true)

Zanna flammea (Linné, 1763)

Zanna bacula (Gerstaecker, 1895)

Species with hindwings black basally, lighter apically

Zanna pustulosa Gerstaecker, 1873

Zanna rendalli Distant, 1905

Zanna wroughtoni Distant, 1907

Zanna basibrunnea (Schmidt, 1906)

Species with hindwings black but with a pale marking on basal half

Zanna clavaticeps Karsch, 1890

Zanna turrita Gerstaecker, 1895

Zanna noduligera Melichar, 1908

Species with hindwings pale

Zanna intricata Walker, 1858

Zanna westwoodi Metcalf, 1947

Zanna punctata (Olivier, 1791)

Zanna ascendens Lallemand, 1959

Zanna beieri Lallemand, 1959

Zanna capensis Lallemand, 1966

Additional species not pictured here

Zanna angolana Lallemand, 1959
Zanna bouriezi Lallemand, 1959
Zanna chopardi Lallemand, 1942
Zanna ornata Melichar, 1908
Zanna pauliani (Lallemand, 1950)
Zanna schweizeri Schmidt, 1906
Zanna soni Lallemand, 1959

Posted on 17 de março de 2023, 03:42 AM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 10 comentários | Deixar um comentário

02 de março de 2023

Notes on the identity of Hariola claryi Audibert, Porion & Nagai, 2016, a lanternfly from New Guinea

In 2016 Audibert, Porion, & Nagai described a new species of Hariola from New Guinea. The new species resembles the type species of Hariola by reference to the tegmen coloration, but the shape of the cephalic process differs dramatically, and the authors did not explain the placement of this species in the genus Hariola. Indeed, many genera from New Guinea are similarly colored and nothing in the description of the species implies that the species was compared with other New Guinea genera, which are largely distinguished by the shape of the cephalic process. Based on the shape of the cephalic process, I posit that the species is correctly placed in the genus Ombro, and as the authors did not compare their species with this genus it is likely that Hariola claryi is synonymous with Ombro vindemitor Fennah 1977.

Left: Hariola tiarata, type species. Right: Hariola claryi

Hariola tiarata, cephalic process

Left: Hariola claryi cephalic process. Right: Ombro vindemitor cephalic process, illustration by Fennah 1977

Left: Hariola claryi. Right: Ombro vindemitor, illustration by Fennah 1977

Posted on 02 de março de 2023, 10:33 PM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 comentários | Deixar um comentário

01 de fevereiro de 2023

Additions to the Psylloidea of Mexico: Bactericera maculipennis

I report here the first record of Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford, 1910) from Mexico, based on an iNaturalist observation from Ensenada, Baja California. The species, which feeds on various plants in the family Convolvulaceae, was previously known from the western USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Utah) and western Canada (Alberta). Its occurrence in northern Mexico was expected.

The addition brings the number of psylloidea species reported from Mexico to 138.

Species recognition:

Bactericera maculipennis from Los Angeles county, CA. Photo by Jesse Rorabaugh

Bactericera maculipennis may be recognized by its typically Triozid wing venation (vein R+M+Cu trifurcating into veins R, M, and Cu) in addition to the highly angulate wings, large and unusually-shaped cubital cell, and by its wing maculation. Very few triozid species in North America have maculate wings, with the most similar Mexican species being Leuronota inusitata. Both species are illustrated below.

Wings of Triozidae. Above: Leuronota inusitata. Below: Bactericera maculipennis. Images from Tuthill 1943, 1945.

Part of an ungoing series on Mexican Psylloidea. More:

Part 1: a checklist of species

Posted on 01 de fevereiro de 2023, 11:08 PM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

24 de janeiro de 2023

PSYLLOIDEA OF MEXICO Part 1: A checklist of species

The jumping plant lice of Mexico are relatively poorly known. In his monograph of Psylloidea of the new world, Crawford (1914) described less than 20 species from Mexico, and three decades later the knowledge of Mexican Psylloidea had barely advanced with Caldwell's preliminary list of Mexican species (1941) including just under 40 species. The next few years would see a bit of activity, with Tuthill describing 19 new Mexican species and Caldwell another 25 in the period from 1941-1945. By 1996, 116 species were recorded from the country (Yang & Miller 1996). This was the last major checklist for the region, and very few new species have been described since then.

I report here 137 species, an increase of 21 species from Yang & Miller's list. Some of these represent recent foreign introductions such as the Australian Red Gum Lerp Psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei), some represent recently described endemic species, and others represent new Mexican records of species previously known from the USA or elsewhere supported by iNaturalist data but not officially documented elsewhere. At least one species, Kuwayama longipennis Tuthill 1945, was absent from Yang & Miller's list despite being described from Mexico decades earlier. Additionally, the taxonomy of Psylloidea has changed significantly in the past several decades and this new checklist reflects those changes.

I estimate the number of species reported is probably less than half of the true diversity present in the country and future study should greatly increase this number. Many species reported from Southern Arizona and Texas in particular are likely to occur in parts of Northern Mexico, several Guatemalan species are expected in Southern Mexico, and undoubtedly many undescribed species occur throughout the country. Species expected from the country but not recorded are not included, but a single undescribed species is included on this list.

Much work must be done to fully understand the Mexican species. Unfortunately, many of the species of the region are poorly described (especially Caldwell's species), and several species are currently placed in incorrect genera. Despite this, in the upcoming parts of this series I will attempt to relay the current knowledge regarding the Mexican species with the hopes of advancing the understanding of Mexican Psylloidea in addition to promoting an interest in the species from the country.

ᵃ = Species not listed in Yang & Mitter's (1996) checklist
ᵇ = Species not native to Mexico




ᵃAphalara ortegae Burckhardt, Cort & Queiroz, 2020
ᵃAphalara persicaria Caldwell, 1937
Aphalara simila Caldwell, 1937
Craspedolepta caudata (Crawford, 1914)
Craspedolepta numerica (Caldwell, 1941)
Craspedolepta nupera (Van Duzee, 1923)
Craspedolepta veaziei (Patch, 1911)
Hodkinsonia montana (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)


ᵇBlastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, 1985
ᵃᵇCtenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890)
ᵃᵇCtenarytaina spatulata Taylor, 1997
ᵃᵇGlycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964


Syncoptozus mexicanus Hodkinson, 1990


ᵃPseudophacopteron sp. n.


Ameroscena mexicana Burckhardt & Lauterer, 1989


Calophya dicksoni Jensen, 1957
ᵃᵇCalophya schini Tuthill, 1959
ᵃCalophya spondiadis Burckhardt & Mendez, 2016



Epicarsa corniculata Crawford, 1911
Paracarsidara dugesii (Löw, 1886)
Paracarsidara gigantea (Crawford, 1911)
Paracarsidara mexicana (Crawford, 1911)


Synoza floccosa Ferris, 1928
Synoza pulchra Laing, 1923


ᵃPachypsylla celtidisasterisca Riley, 1890
ᵃPachypsylla celtidismamma (Riley, 1875)
ᵃPachypsylla pallida Patch, 1912
Pachypsylla tropicala Caldwell, 1944
ᵃPachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861)
Tetragonocephala flava Crawford, 1914



ᵃᵇEuphyllura olivina (Costa, 1839) (tentatively listed based on iNaturalist observation)


Diclidophlebia tuxtlaensis (Conconi, 1972)
ᵃLivia caricis Crawford, 1914
Livia mexicana Caldwell, 1944


Neophyllura mexicana (Jensen, 1952)


Mastigimas ernstii (Schwarz, 1899)
Mastigimas schwarzi (Tuthill, 1945)



ᵇAcizzia uncatoides (Ferris & Klyver, 1932)


Aphalaroida inermis Crawford, 1914
Aphalaroida lysilomae Hodkinson, 1991
Aphalaroida pithecolobia Crawford, 1914
Aphalaroida rauca Hodkinson, 1991
Freysuila dugesii Aleman, 1887


Caradocia delongi Caldwell, 1944
Euceropsylla minuticona (Crawford, 1914)
Euceropsylla orizabensis (Crawford, 1914)
Heteropsylla aurantiaca Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla boquetensis (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)
Heteropsylla clavata Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla crawfordi Enderlein, 1918
Heteropsylla cubana Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla didubiata Caldwell, 1944
Heteropsylla flexuosa Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla forcipata Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla fusca Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla huasachae Caldwell, 1941
Heteropsylla intermedia Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla mexicana Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla mimosae Crawford, 1914
Heteropsylla muricata Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla nebulosa Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla propinqua Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis, 1992
Heteropsylla texana Crawford, 1914
Mitrapsylla albalineata Crawford, 1914
ᵃMitrapsylla cf. surinamensis (Šulc, 1914)
Mitrapsylla cubana Crawford, 1914
Mitrapsylla deserata Caldwell, 1944
Telmapsylla lagunculariae (Brown & Hodkinson, 1988)


ᵃᵇDiaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908


Katacephala arcuata Crawford, 1914
Katacephala cinctata Hodkinson, 1991
Katacephala grandiceps Crawford, 1914


Apsyllopsis mexicana (Crawford, 1914)
Euphalerus fasciatus Laing, 1923
Euphalerus gallicolus Ferris, 1928
Euphalerus nidifex Schwarz, 1904


Platycorypha amabilis (Caldwell, 1947)
Platycorypha magnifrons (Crawford, 1914)
Platycorypha princeps Tuthill, 1945


Cacopsylla "americana" (Crawford, 1914) (complex of species, no way to know what this record refers to)
"Cacopsylla" nana (Tuthill, 1938) (I suggest this species properly belongs in Purshivora)

Psyllidae incertae sedis

"Arytaina" virgina Caldwell, 1944 (impossible to know what genus this species should be referred to)
"Psylla" minutiforma Caldwell, 1944 (male genitalia suggests Amorphicola)


Bactericera antennata (Crawford, 1910)
Bactericera bifurca (Tuthill, 1944)
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc, 1909)
Bactericera dubia (Tuthill, 1943)
Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford, 1910)
Bactericera minuta (Crawford, 1910)
Bactericera rubra (Tuthill, 1939)
Baeoalitriozus diospyri (Ashmead, 1881)
Calinda collaris (Crawford, 1910)
ᵃCalinda graciliforceps Olivares & Burckhardt, 1997
ᵃCalinda longicaudata Olivares & Burckhardt, 1997
Calinda proximata (Crawford, 1911)
Ceropsylla sideroxyli Riley, 1885
Kuwayama elongagena (Caldwell, 1941)
Kuwayama hyalina Caldwell, 1944
Kuwayama lateralis Caldwell, 1944
ᵃKuwayama longipennis Tuthill 1945
Kuwayama medicaginis (Crawford, 1910)
Kuwayama mexicana Caldwell, 1944
Kuwayama oaxacenis (Crawford, 1911)
Kuwayama plummeri (Caldwell, 1944)
Kuwayama striata Caldwell, 1944
Leuronota inusitata (Tuthill, 1944)
Leuronota maculata (Crawford, 1910)
Leuronota maritima Tuthill, 1944
Leuronota michoacana Ferris, 1928
Trichochermes magna (Laing, 1923)
ᵃᵇTrioza adventicia Tuthill, 1952 (tentatively listed based on iNaturalist observation)
ᵃTrioza aguacate Hollis & Martin, 1997
Trioza albifrons Crawford, 1910
Trioza anceps Tuthill, 1944
Trioza apartata Caldwell, 1944
Trioza bella Tuthill, 1944
Trioza dampfi Tuthill, 1944
Trioza discrepans (Tuthill, 1945)
Trioza epiphitatae Caldwell, 1944
Trioza grandipennis Tuthill, 1944
Trioza hildagoensis Caldwell, 1944
Trioza incidata Tuthill, 1945
Trioza longigenae Tuthill, 1945
Trioza magnoliae (Ashmead, 1881)
Trioza mexicana Crawford, 1911
Trioza nigriconus Tuthill, 1944
Trioza nigriscutum Tuthill, 1945
Trioza psyllihabitus Tuthill, 1945
Trioza pulchra (Tuthill, 1945)
Trioza rhinosa Caldwell, 1944
Trioza rugosata Caldwell, 1944
Trioza russellae Tuthill, 1944
Trioza stroma Caldwell, 1944
Trioza thoracica Caldwell, 1941
Trioza zogoda Caldwell, 1944
Triozoida formiciformis (Caldwell, 1944)
Triozoida limbata (Enderlein, 1918)
Triozoida prima (Tuthill, 1945)

Posted on 24 de janeiro de 2023, 06:29 PM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 comentários | Deixar um comentário

21 de novembro de 2022

First records of the psyllid Heteropsylla intermedia in the USA

Several years ago I found an unusual psyllid on Catclaw Mimosa (Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera) in the Santa Catalina Mountains:

At the time I tried to attribute this psyllid to a possibly undescribed species of Cacopsylla (what would be considered Purshivora today), but this was clearly not quite right. An option I had not considered at all was Heteropsylla, a genus whose US representation includes a number of species recognizable by their lack of genal cones, such as the common mesquite psyllid Heteropsylla texana:

However, not all Heteropsylla lack genal cones, and several species in Mexico do have quite prominent genal cones. The Heteropsylla distincta group in particular includes a number of species with both prominent genal cones and maculated forewings.

Muddiman, Hodkinson & Hollis 1992 describe and illustrate Heteropsylla intermedia. The wing maculation is fairly distinct, lacking both the dark streak on the apex of Rs and the dark spot on Cu1b that is present in Heteropsylla texana. The dark marking that extends from M1+2 to Cu1a is similar to that in the Mexican species Heteropsylla nebulosa and H. muricata, but the overall wing maculation is much less extensive than in those species.

Previously, this species had only been known from Mexico, where it was collected on Mimosa ?albida.

In October 2022, iNaturalist user Joe Girgente (joseph92) made another observation of this psyllid in Lubbock, Texas:

© Joe Girgente, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

With these two records, the known range of Heteropsylla intermedia is expanded to include the southern USA in addition to Mexico. This claim is made with the caveat that as neither of the two recorded specimens were collected, there is a nonzero possibility that the USA records could represent an undescribed species similar to but geographically distinct from Heteropsylla intermedia. Future collecting of psyllids on Mimosa in the southern USA will undoubtedly resolve this uncertainty.

Posted on 21 de novembro de 2022, 01:50 PM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 2 comentários | Deixar um comentário

14 de outubro de 2022

Notes and identity of the Burrobrush Gall Psyllid

I. Background. When I first moved to Tucson five years ago in the winter of 2018, one of the first plants I recorded was a ragweed-like bush with long thin leaves covered with numerous dried flowers. Upon posting to inat, local plant expert Steve Jones identified this plant to be Ambrosia monogyra (Singlewhorl Burrobrush) and informed me that those "flowers" were in actuality galls, but he didn't know what insect was responsible for them.

Later that year, Steve would go on to investigate the galls more closely and photograph the insect inside, but it would take me another 3 years to notice this observation and realize the insect he had photographed was not a gall midge like I would have expected but a psyllid.

Steve's psyllid was a nymph, and while nymphs are difficult to identify I determined that it belonged to the genus Craspedolepta, a holarctic genus typically associated with plants in the family Asteraceae. With over 40 species, Craspedolepta is the second most diverse genus of psyllids in North America, although none are known from Ambrosia, raising questions on whether this psyllid was in fact the gall inducer or just an incidental/inquiline. Later that year, James Bailey would go on to photograph more Craspedolepta nymphs inside Ambrosia monogyra galls which seemed to answer that question, but raise another: what species of Craspedolepta induces galls on Ambrosia monogyra? Is it an undescribed species?

Nymphs from burrobrush galls. (image credits: left: Steve Jones. Right: James Bailey)

In October, 2022, I investigated gall-covered Ambrosia monogyra and was able to find three adult female psyllids, which I have identified to be Craspedolepta lapsus.

II. Identification. Adult Craspedolepta can be recognized among the North American psyllid fauna by the following combination of characters: genal cones absent, pterostigma absent, vein R+M+Cu bifurcating into veins R & M+Cu, vertex wider than long, antennae shorter than 2x head width, and the clypeus not long and tubular. Craspedolepta in North America can be subdivided into approximately 4 groups which may or may not be strictly monophyletic but are useful in species recognition. These groups can be summarized as follows:

  1. C. angustipennis group: Species with white-ish wings covered in dark spots, usually on Artemesia
  2. C. veaziei group: Species with yellowish to clear wings, usually covered in dark spots, usually on Solidago
  3. C. vulgaris group: Species with yellowish to clear wings, without spots, usually on Solidago
  4. C. nebulosa group: Species associated with fireweed

Several exceptions, such as Craspedolepta sonchi or C. eas, don't fall into any of these groups but are easily identifiable and do not need to be considered for the purpose of this study.

The psyllids collected were determined to belong to the Craspedolepta vulgaris group by reference to the spotless yellow wings and a total length over 3.5mm. However, certain species of the C. veaziei group may rarely fit these characteristics as well, so both of these groups were considered for the purposes of this study.

In addition to the presence or absence of wing maculation, characters useful for species-level diagnosis in the genus Craspedolepta include the arrangement of the surface spinelets on the wings, the shape of the head in dorsal view, the length of the antennae and number of antennae segments, the shape of the clypeus in lateral view, the total length, and the male and female genitalia. These characters are discussed in the following sections.

Surface spinelets. Surface spinelets are minute setae on the wings which are generally only visible at high magnification but may sometimes be visible in very high definition photos. The relative density of these spinelets may be useful in diagnosing species, and in some species they are arranged to form a hexagonal pattern. A summary of the surface spinelets for veaziei and vulgaris group species is given as follows:

Veaziei group
C. veaziei, C. caudata, C. numerica, C. nota, C. macula, C. fumida: spinelets arranged in a roughly hexagonal pattern
C. maculimagna, C. oregonensis: spinelets sparse, no pattern

Vulgaris group
C. vulgaris, C. parvula, C. constricta, C. furcata, C. minuta, C. flavida, C. ochracea: spinelets arranged in a roughly hexagonal pattern
C. magna, C. lapsus, C. scurra: spinelets sparse, no pattern

Head characters. Characters relating to the head and antennae may occasionally be useful in Craspedolepta species determination but were not necessary for this study.

Total length. Length is measured from the head to the wingtips. Craspedolepta generally measure between 1.5 to 4mm with females typically larger than males, but the size is relatively constant for each species.

A summary of the average lengths of veaziei and vulgaris group females is given as follows:

Veaziei group females in mm
2.8 ± 0.13 C. veaziei
2.6 ± 0.06 C. caudata
2.3 ± 0.03 C. numerica
2.7 ± 0.20 C. nota
2.8 ± 0.09 C. macula
3.1 ± 0.13 C. maculimagna
2.5 ± 0.06 C. oregonensis
3.6 ± 0.17 C. fumida

Vulgaris group females in mm
3.5 ± 0.13 C. magna
3.1 ± 0.17 C. vulgaris
2.5 ± 0.10 C. parvula
3.0 ± 0.12 C. constricta
3.3 ± 0.17 C. furcata
2.5 ± ?.?? C. minuta (missing pages 68-69 from Journet & Vickery, unable to assess)
3.9 ± ?.?? C. lapsus (only 1 female analyzed by Journet & Vickery, so average measurements are unknown)
3.2 ± 0.09 C. flavida
3.6 ± 0.10 C. scurra
3.6 ± 0.14 C. ochracea

In general, species of the veaziei group (spotted wings) are smaller than species of the vulgaris group (spotless wings), with a few exceptions. Only C. fumida and C. maculimagna exceed 3.0mm, and of these only C. fumida is described as being occasionally spotless. The typical spotted form of C. fumida may be distinguished by all other members of the veaziei group easily by its size, but the potential of spotless forms means that it must be considered when trying to diagnose spotless specimens (>3.0mm). The opposite is true of the relatively small spotless members of the C. vulgaris group, C. parvula and C. minuta. Females of the C. angustipennis group need not be considered for this study, but all species measure less than 3.0mm except the densely-spotted C. maculidracunculi (3.1mm).

Genitalia. Male genitalia is often more useful than female genitalia in species determination, but there are several exceptions. In particular, C. caudata and C. numerica have a distinctly downcurved dorsal valve, C. constricta and C. lapsus have an abruptly narrowed dorsal valve, and C. furcata has a distinctly abbreviated ventral valve. Differences between other species are much more slight. The genitalia for all members of the veaziei and vulgaris groups are illustrated here (source: modified from Journet & Vickery 1979):

Figures. 1. C. veaziei, 2. C. caudata, 3. C. numerica, 4. C. nota, 5. C. macula, 6. C. maculimagna, 7. C. oregonensis, 8. C. fumida, 9. C. magna, 10. C. vulgaris, 11. C. parvula, 12. C. constricta, 13. C. furcata, 14. C. minuta, 15. C. lapsus, 16. C. flavida, 17. C. scurra, 18. C. ochracea

III. Methods. Two adult female Craspedolepta were collected from Ambrosia monogyra and were analyzed in regard to the above outlined characters. Surface spinelets were assessed microscopically using 100x magnification.

IV. Results. Collected females were measured to be 3.6 and 3.7mm. A microscopic analysis of the surface spinelets revealed that the spinelets were sparse, not arranged in a distinctly hexagonal pattern. The female genitalia of both specimens were compared to Journet & Vickery's illustrations.

The large size coupled with the sparse spinelet distribution instantly excludes the entire veaziei group and most members of the vulgaris group except C. magna, C. lapsus, and C. scurra. The genitalia proved to be distinctive however, with the dorsal plate abruptly narrowed before the apex, a character only seen in C. lapsus (compare fig 15 above, and please ignore the bad lighting - still working on a way to take better illuminated microscope pics)

V. Conclusions. Craspedolepta lapsus was described from a small series of adults from Davis, Texas, and the host plant and life history of the species were until now unknown. Two assumptions are made here: the identification of the psyllids examined here as Craspedolepta lapsus assumes that there is not an undescribed species which has a female with identical characteristics as C. lapsus, and the association of this species with burrobrush galls assumes that there are not more than one Craspedolepta species associated with Ambrosia monogyra. Further study and collection may shed light on whether these hypotheses could be true. No male psyllids could be found for examination in the current study.

Burrobrush galls can be fairly common locally in Arizona, but it is likely that this psyllid occurs throughout the range of the hostplant, at least to western Texas. An examination of Ambrosia monogyra observations on iNaturalist may yield further information about this insect's range. Nymphs have been found in July and August (iNat observations), and adults have been recorded from September and October. While many plants were heavily galled in October, I was not able to find any nymphs inside galls at this time, though I did find several nymph exuviae. The complete life history and development period of this psyllid remains unknown at this time.

Posted on 14 de outubro de 2022, 12:51 PM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 6 comentários | Deixar um comentário

04 de julho de 2022

Help me find psyllids on Beaked Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta)

Background. Members of the birch family (Betulaceae) are a common host plant for psyllids in North America. All species associated with plants in this family are now referred to the genus Psylla, and include Psylla alni, P. viridescens, P. caudata and P. floccosa on Alder, P. striata, P. hartigii, P. betulae and P. betulaenanae on Birch, and P. carpinicola on Hornbeam. Many of these psyllids are relatively frequently observed, due to their large size in addition to the rather conspicuous nymphs which are usually covered in dense white fluff. One additional psyllid belongs to this group: P. diloncha, which is recorded from from the plant historically referred to as Corylus rostrata but is today known as Corylus cornuta, or Beaked Hazelnut.

Beaked Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) is a somewhat common tree that grows in the eastern and midwestern USA into western Canada and south along the west coast into California. The recorded distribution of Psylla diloncha mirrors the host distribution, with records from Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, Alberta, and California. Historical records from Kansas and Nevada also exist but seem to be outside of Beaked Hazelnut's current native range.

Original descriptions and illustrations of P. diloncha would suggest that it is most similar to the birch psyllid P. striata, but with genal cones very long and with the pterostigma almost entirely lacking. It may also be similar to the hornbeam psyllid P. carpinicola, but with the cubital cell less strongly arched and probably with the wings a bit more yellowish.

To date, I can find no example of photos on iNaturalist or Bugguide which are convincingly suggestive of this species, so perhaps that's where you come in. If Beaked Hazelnut is in your area, try investigating it for these psyllids; at this time of year, adults are expected. Nymphs are likely to also cover themselves in conspicuous white fluff like other members of the genus, but it is not known when nymphs may be found. Photos of this species will advance our understanding of this genus and will also be an iNaturalist first.

Beaked Hazelnut leaves. C. Mallory

Psylla striata adult © Stuart Tingley, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC). Psylla diloncha is expected to look similar to this species.

Psylla viridescens nymphs on alder. © Masumi Palhof, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC). Psylla diloncha nymphs may be similar

Posted on 04 de julho de 2022, 02:07 AM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário

03 de julho de 2022

A checklist of the Psylloidea of Canada

The Canadian psyllid fauna is often lumped together with the USA fauna in checklists, and at least 354 species of psyllids are currently known to occur in the region consisting of the United States and Canada. However, many of the species found in the lower USA do not occur in Canada, and so a more focused regional checklist felt necessary to better understand the Canadian fauna. Herein I list the 119 species which are currently known to occur in Canada, but undoubtedly there are many undocumented species which likely also occur within the country.

14 species are considered to be non-native to the region; introduced species are listed in italics. Species not known to occur outside of Canada are listed in bold. Provinces in which a species has been recorded are listed with the westmost province first and then continue from west to east. The host plant (if known) is recorded following the distribution.

A printer-friendly PDF version of this list can be accessed here.




Aphalara confusa Caldwell, 1937 (AB). Rumex
Aphalara curta Caldwell, 1937 (AB). Polygonum/Persicaria
Aphalara dentata Caldwell, 1937 (AB).
Aphalara loca Caldwell, 1937 (AB, MB). Polygonum/Persicaria
Aphalara manitobaensis Caldwell, 1938 (AB, MB).
Aphalara monticola Hodkinson, 1973 (AB). Rumex
Aphalara nigra Caldwell, 1937 (MB).
Aphalara nubifera Patch, 1912 (AB). Rumex
Aphalara persicaria Caldwell, 1937 (BC). Polygonum/Persicaria
Aphalara rumicis Mally, 1894 (BC, NS). Rumex
Aphalara steironemicola Richards, 1970 (ON). Lysimachia


Craspedolepta angustipennis (Crawford, 1911) (YT, BC, AB, SK, ON, QC). Achillea
Craspedolepta canadensis Journet & Vickery, 1979 (BC, SK, ON). Artemisia
Craspedolepta flavida (Caldwell, 1938) (AB, SK, MB, ON, QC). Euthamia
Craspedolepta fumida (Caldwell, 1938) (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS). Solidago
Craspedolepta furcata (Caldwell, 1936) (BC, AB, MB, NB, NS). Euthamia
Craspedolepta gutierreziae (Klyver, 1931) (AB). Guiterrezia
Craspedolepta maculipilosa Journet & Vickery, 1979 (AB, SK).
Craspedolepta magna Journet & Vickery, 1979 (AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE). Solidago
Craspedolepta minutissima (Crawford, 1911) (BC). Artemisia
Craspedolepta nebulosa (Zetterstedt, 1828) (YT, BC, NT, AB, MB, ON, QC). Chamaenerion
Craspedolepta nota Journet & Vickery, 1979 (AB, MB).
Craspedolepta ochracea (Provancher, 1872) (QC). Solidago
Craspedolepta parvula Journet & Vickery, 1979 (AB, SK, QC, NB). Solidago
Craspedolepta schwarzi (Ashmead, 1904) (BC, AB). Chamaenerion
Craspedolepta scurra Journet & Vickery, 1979 (QC, NS). Solidago
Craspedolepta sonchi (Foerster, 1848) (AB, SK, MB, ON). Sonchus
Craspedolepta subpunctata (Foerster, 1848) (YT, BC, AB, SK, MB, ON). Chamaenerion
Craspedolepta vancouverensis (Klyver, 1931) (BC, AB). Artemisia
Craspedolepta veaziei (Patch, 1911) (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS). Solidago
Craspedolepta vulgaris (Journet & Vickery, 1979) (BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE). Solidago



Rhinocola aceris (Linnaeus, 1758) (ON, PE). Acer



Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell, 1890) (BC). Eucalyptus




Calophya triozomima Schwarz, 1904 (AB, ON). Rhus




Pachypsylla celtidismamma (Fletcher, 1883) (SK, MB, ON, QC). Celtis
Pachypsylla celtidisvesicula Riley, 1884 (ON, QC). Celtis
Pachypsylla cohabitans Yang & Riemann 2001 (ON). Celtis




Psyllopsis discrepans (Flor, 1861) (AB, ON, NS). Fraxinus
Psyllopsis fraxini (Linné, 1758) (BC). Fraxinus
Psyllopsis fraxinicola (Foerster, 1848) (BC, NS). Fraxinus



Livia bifasciata Provancher, 1886 (ON, QC, NB). Juncus
Livia caricis Crawford, 1914 (BC). Carex
Livia crawfordi Hodkinson & Bird, 2000 (ON). Juncus
Livia maculipennis (Fitch, 1857) (ON). Juncus
Livia manitobensis Hodkinson & Bird, 2000 (MB, NB). Carex
Livia saltatrix Provancher, 1886 (ON, QC, NB). Carex
Livia vernalis Fitch, 1851 (ON, QC). Carex



Neophyllura arbuti (Schwarz, 1904) (BC). Arbutus
Neophyllura arctostaphyli (Schwarz, 1904) (BC, NB). Arctostaphylos




Arytaina genistae (Latreille, 1804) (BC, NS). Cytisus


Arytainilla spartiophila (Foerster, 1848) (BC). Cytisus


Cacopsylla alaskensis (Ashmead, 1904) (MB). Salix
Cacopsylla alba (Crawford, 1914) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla americana (Crawford, 1914) (AB, NS?). Salix
Cacopsylla annulata (Fitch, 1851) (ON, QC, NB, NS). Acer
Cacopsylla arctica (Walker, 1852) (ON). Salix
Cacopsylla breviata (Patch, 1912) (ON). Salix
Cacopsylla fatsiae (Jensen, 1957) (BC). Fatsia
Cacopsylla fibulata (Crawford, 1914) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla hamata (Tuthill, 1944) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla highwoodensis (Hodkinson, 1978) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla kananaskensis (Hodkinson, 1976) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla latiforceps (Tuthill, 1943) (BC). Salix
Cacopsylla magnicauda (Crawford, 1914) (BC, AB, SK, MB). Eleagnus
Cacopsylla mali (Schmidberger, 1836) (QC, NL, NB, NS, PE). Malus
Cacopsylla minor (Crawford, 1914) (BC, AB). Salix
Cacopsylla myrtilli (Wagner, 1947) (AB). Vaccinium
Cacopsylla negundinis (Mally, 1894) (AB, NB). Acer
Cacopsylla parallela (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Salix
Cacopsylla peregrina (Foerster, 1848) (BC, NL, NS). Crataegus
Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster, 1848) (BC, QC, NS). Pyrus
Cacopsylla rara (Tuthill, 1944) (AB, NS). Viburnum
Cacopsylla rufipennis Hodkinson, 1978 (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla sinuata Crawford, 1914 (AB, MB, ON, NL). Salix
Cacopsylla stricklandi (Caldwell, 1939) (BC, AB). Shepherdia
Cacopsylla subspiculata (Hodkinson, 1976) (AB). Salix
Cacopsylla tuthilli (Caldwell, 1939) (AB). Shepherdia


Ceanothia fuscipennis (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Ceanothus
Ceanothia robusta (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Ceanothus


Livilla variegata (Löw, 1881) (BC, NL). Laburnum


Psylla alni (Linné, 1758) (BC, AB). Alnus
Psylla betulae (Linné, 1758) (AB). Betula
Psylla carpinicola Crawford, 1914 (ON, QC, NB, NS). Carpinus
Psylla caudata Crawford, 1914 (BC). Alnus
Psylla diloncha (Caldwell, 1938) (AB). Corylus
Psylla floccosa Patch, 1909 (BC, AB, MB, ON, NB, NS). Alnus
Psylla hartigii (Flor, 1861) (AB, NS). Betula
Psylla striata (Patch, 1911) (BC, AB, NB, NS). Betula
Psylla viridescens (Provancher, 1872) (BC, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS). Alnus


Purshivora coryli (Patch, 1912) (BC). Purshia
Purshivora minuta (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Purshia
Purshivora pubescens (Crawford, 1914) (BC). Purshia


Spanioneura buxi (Linné, 1758) (BC, ON, QC, NL, NB, NS, PE). Buxus
Spanioneura fonscolombii Foerster, 1848 (ON). Buxus
Spanioneura sanguinea (Provancher, 1872) (BC, AB, MB, ON, QC, NL, NB, NS). Prunus



Bactericera arbolensis (Crawford, 1910) (SK). Shepherdia
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc, 1909) (BC, AB, SK, ON). Solanaceae (many genera)
Bactericera incerta (Tuthill, 1943) (BC). Salix
Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford, 1910) (AB). Convolvulus
Bactericera minuta (Crawford, 1910) (AB). Salix
Bactericera pletschi (Tuthill, 1944) (AB).
Bactericera salicivora (Reuter, 1876) (BC, AB, ON, NB). Salix
Bactericera shepherdiae (Tuthill, 1938) (YT, BC, AB). Shepherdia
Bactericera varians (Crawford, 1910) (BC, AB). Salix


Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter, 1876) (BC, AB, NB, NS, PE). Chenopodium


Lauritrioza alacris (Flor, 1861) (BC). Laurus


Neotriozella pyrifolii (Forbes, 1885) (ON, NS). Styrax


Phylloplecta occidentalis (Tuthill, 1939) (BC). Rubus
Phylloplecta stylifera (Patch, 1912) (MB, ON).
Phylloplecta tripunctata (Fitch, 1851) (ON, QC, NB). Rubus


Trioza albifrons Crawford, 1910 (BC, AB). Urtica
Trioza aylmeriae Patch, 1912 (ON). Amelanchier
Trioza forcipula Patch, 1912 (ON).
Trioza frontalis Crawford, 1910 (BC, AB, MB). Amelanchier
Trioza inversa Tuthill, 1939 (BC). Amelanchier
Trioza obtusa Patch, 1911 (AB, ON, NB, NL, NS). Amelanchier
Trioza quadripunctata Crawford, 1910 (BC, AB). Urtica
Trioza sulcata Crawford, 1910 (AB). Amelanchier
Trioza longicornis* Crawford, 1910 (BC). Salix?

Host plants

The host plant genera for Canadian Psylloidea are listed, followed by the number of species known from that host. Some genera are grouped together based on recent changes in plant taxonomy that make it difficult to understand historical host plant records, or by a tendency of certain psyllid species groups to use multiple related genera of plants. Of the 44 host plant genus or genus groups known to be associated with psyllids in Canada, 21 of them are host to more than one species.

Salix (20)
Euthamia/Solidago (9)
Amelanchier (5)
Shepherdia/Eleagnus (5)
Alnus (4)
Carex (4)
Rumex (4)
Acer (3)
Artemisia (3)
Betula (3)
Celtis (3)
Chamaenerion (3)
Fraxinus (3)
Juncus (3)
Polygonum/Persicaria (3)
Purshia (3)
Buxus (2)
Ceanothus (2)
Cytisus (2)
Rubus (2)
Urtica (2)
Achillea (1)
Arbutus (1)
Arctostaphylos (1)
Carpinus (1)
Chenopodium (1)
Convolvulus (1)
Corylus (1)
Crataegus (1)
Eucalyptus (1)
Fatsia (1)
Guiterrezia (1)
Laburnum (1)
Laurus (1)
Lysimachia (1)
Malus (1)
Prunus (1)
Pyrus (1)
Rhus (1)
Solanaceae (many genera) (1)
Sonchus (1)
Styrax (1)
Vaccinium (1)
Viburnum (1)

Posted on 03 de julho de 2022, 01:31 AM by psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário