Arquivos de periódicos de janeiro 2019

05 de janeiro de 2019

Notes on the Fulgorid genus Amantia

Amantia is a genus of South American Fulgorid characterized by spotted wings and a broad irregular apical band. This note is to attempt to clarify the recognition of species in the genus and illuminate some issues regarding identification.


© Luis G Restrepo, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)

4 species have been described in the genus:

Amantia combusta (Westwood, 1845)
Amantia imperatoria (Gerstaecker, 1860)
Amantia magnifica Schmidt, 1910
Amantia peruana Schmidt, 1910

A. combusta was described and illustrated by Westwood, available here. A. imperatoria was described and illustrated by Gerstaecker here (fig 7) and again in color by Distant here. The other two species have not been illustrated to my knowledge. Both of those species were described by Schmidt, in German, who then provided a key to the genus. I reproduce here a translated version of that key.

1a) Costal space of the forewing without spots or with an indistinct one in front of the broad apical band, in the corium and clavus together less than 10 spots, veins in the basal parts strong and looser . . . . . . . 2
1b) Costal space of the forewings with four round, larger spots, in the corium and clavus together more than ten spots, veins in the basal parts less strong and narrower. . . . . . . 4
2a) Before the apical margin of the forewings, a broad, angularly broken transverse band, in the corium about six reddish spots distinct . . . . . . . 3
2b) Forewing black with red veins, the black-lined apical band accompanied by a narrow, brownish yellow band, an angular broken band in front of the apical band is not present, the spots in the Corium are very indistinct. Length 36mm, Bolivia. . . . . . . .A. peruana var. infasciata
3a) pronotum monochrome, light brownish yellow. The costal space of the forewings without spot, in the corium six and in the clavus four reddish spots clearly. Opaque wing black with red veins, the narrow band in front of the black Apicalsaume(?) is light brownish-yellow and the angularly broken apical band reddish. Basal field of the wings blood red, against the black apical space paler, root black. Length 40mm. Peru . . . . . . .A. peruana
3b) Pronotum dark green, the rear edge is narrow red-yellow lined. In the costal room of the upper wings, in front of the angularly broken apical fascia, a reddish spot, six reddish spots in the corium; the narrow band in front of the black apical half and the angularly broken apical band pale brownish-yellow and greenish; Basal part black with reddish nerves. Length 32mm. Columbia . . . . . . .A. combusta
4a) Four spots In the costal space of the forewing, and in the corium and clavus more than twenty (24) ocher-yellow spots; the angular apical band is narrow, a little wider than the band in front of the apical margin, both bands are yellow ocher. The veins are very dense, green and ocher-yellow, on black ground. Apical part of the wings black, basal part golden yellow with a slight reddish tone near the root. Length 35mm. Columbia. . . . . . . . A. magnifica
4b) Four spots in the costal space of the forewing, and in the corium and clavus together less than twenty (15) ocher spots; the angular apical fascia is interrupted in the middle, and darker ocher-yellow than the bandage in front of the black apex. Basal part of the wings red, apical part black, wing root black. Costa Rica. Panama . . . . . . .A. imperatoria

Based on the key, it seems the most useful character for diagnosing the species may be the amount of spots on the wing. A summary of that character in particular is given as follows:
Amantia combusta : 1 red spot on costa, 6 red spots on corium
Amantia imperatoria : 4 yellow spots in costa, less than 20 (15) yellow spots on rest of wing
Amantia magnifica : 4 yellow spots in costa, more than 20 (24) yellow spots on rest of wing
Amantia peruana : No spots in costa, ten red spots on rest of wing

As of this writing, all Amantia on iNat are identified as being A. combusta. However, based on interpretation of this key, all of the Amantia currently on iNat have 4 spots in the costal area and about 15ish spots in the clavus and corium combined, which takes them to A. imperatoria in Schmidt's key. However, they are not A. imperatoria, which as the original illustrations demonstrate, has the apical band broken, relatively thin, and not nearly as irregular as the other members of this genus. I feel as if there are only two logical conclusions here. Either (1) Schmidt's key is inadequate, and the number of wing spots is not sufficient to diagnose A. combusta, or (2) the iNat observations of Amantia, all from Colombia, represent an undescribed species. I am tempted to lean towards the former interpretation for the time being, but the issue remains unresolved.

As a final note, I must clarify that I have not yet seen Porion's Catalog of the North American Fulgoridae (1994), and am curious if Amantia is illustrated there. I recommend review of this publication before taking any action on this genus.

Publicado em 05 de janeiro de 2019, 05:45 AM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 4 comentários | Deixar um comentário

24 de janeiro de 2019

Identification of Neotropical Nogodinidae

Nogodinids are a small, odd family of mostly tropical planthoppers, consisting of lacy-winged Ricaniid-like forms as well as opaque-winged Issid-like forms. In the new world, the family is found throughout Central and South America, with a single species adventive in the US (Florida). This post seeks to clarify identification of the "Ricaniid-like" species of the subtribe Nogodinina.


Above: some examples of neotropical Nogodinidae. Photos © Rich Hoyer ( @birdernaturalist ) some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC-SA)

While there are not many genera concerned in this group and identification is not complicated, most of the relevant documentation was written in German. Due to this, I produce here in English an illustrated key to the genera of Nogodinina, modified from Schmidt 1919. In Central America, all species will key to either one of the first two genera here; the remaining genera are exclusively South American.

1a. Four main veins arise from the basal cell (fig 1): Nogodina
1b. Three main veins arise from the basal cell (fig 2) . . . . . . . . . . 2


Fig 1: Nogodina venation at basal cell


Fig 2: Biolleyana venation at basal cell

2a. Transverse veins in the clavus (fig 3, in red): Biolleyana
2b. Clavus lacking transverse veins . . . . . . . . . 3

3a. Tegmina (forewings) 1.5 times as long as wide at the widest point; apical edge truncated; costal edge strongly bent; costal membrane with more than ten transverse nerves (fig 3, in blue). . . . . . . . . .4
3b. Tegmina twice as long as wide at the widest point, apex not truncated; costal edge not sharply bent; less than 10 transverse nerves in the costal membrane: Orthothyreus

4a. Medial cell with transverse vein: Neovarcia
4b. Medial cell lacking transverse vein (fig 3, in yellow): Varciopsis


Fig 3: Biolleyana pictifrons, © @jsatler, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC), photo modified to highlight veins in the clavus (red), in the costal membrane (blue), and the median cell (yellow)

As stated above, Central American species will key to either Nogodina (one species) or Biolleyana (three species). All five genera may be found in South America. As the majority of observations on iNat are of the genus Biolleyana though, I present here a simplified key to the species in that genus.

1a. Transverse veins in costal membrane few (under 15), widely spaced (fig 4): Biolleyana costalis. Costa Rica to Ecuador
1b. Transverse veins in costal membrane numerous (more than 15), dense (fig 5). . . . . . . . . . 2

2a. Wings weakly maculated, yellowish; most conspicuous mark a bold spot near the stigma (fig 5): Biolleyana fenestra. Costa Rica to Panama
2b. Wings heavily maculated with black (fig 3): Biolleyana pictifrons. Mexico to Costa Rica


Fig 4 (left): Biolleyana costalis; Fig 5 (right): Biolleyana fenestra. Photos © Rich Hoyer ( @birdernaturalist ) some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC-SA)

I hope this post is useful in differentiating these neotropical hoppers. I intend to create future posts aiming to aid in identification, so if there is anything I can do to clarify things better please let me know! And if you want to see more Nogodinids on iNat, here you go.

Publicado em 24 de janeiro de 2019, 05:24 PM por psyllidhipster psyllidhipster | 5 comentários | Deixar um comentário