14 de janeiro de 2022

Lined seahorses in Nova Scotia, Canada?

Two Lined seahorses found in Nova Scotia.

These two handsome Lined (Northern) seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) were recorded by iSeahorse/iNaturalist users elli_ofthenorth (left) and nsbga (right) far from their usual home. The left one was found swimming in eastern Nova Scotia, Canada in the western Atlantic Ocean while the right one was found dead on a pile of seaweed in eastern Nova Scotia in the Bay of Fundy.

So what, you may ask?

Lined seahorses are typically spotted among mangroves, seagrass, corals, sponges, and floating mosses all around the Caribbean and Central America, not in Canada! BUT, these two rare sightings in Nova Scotia, reported in late 2021, are becoming more common. Seahorses have been spotted much further north in 2020, 2017, 2015 and 2013.

So, clearly these seahorses were far away from home. But how did they get there? Although they are reported to occur in Nova Scotia, their presence in Canada is still uncertain. Do they usually live here but we rarely see them? Or are they finding a new home along our coast? Perhaps like many other marine species they are moving north and finding new habitats as our climate and ocean warms. So many questions!

This discovery is important because Lined seahorses are listed as being globally Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Their shallow seas habitats are being destroyed by coastal development, pollution, sedimentation and destructive fishing practices (such as bottom trawling).

How can you help? While I'm not telling you to stop eating fish there are many things you can do to help seahorses and the seas. You can start by treating marine fishes as wildlife and avoid eating fish and other marine life that came from bottom trawls. And, of course, spread the word! Find out more about seahorses and what you can do for them here projectseahorse.org/take-action/take-individual-steps.

Written by Nathan Mao, Project Seahorse undergraduate volunteer

Publicado em 14 de janeiro de 2022, 10:31 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

15 de dezembro de 2021

Beautiful Big belly

A beautiful yellow big belly seahorse sitting among some seaweed.

This elegant Bigbelly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) has the distinctive large brood pouch which gives this species its “big belly”. This lovely photo was captured by iNaturalist user imogen3184 off the coast of Melbourne, Australia and is our featured iSeahorse observation.

Big bellies range from black to yellow and often have dark markings. They are the largest seahorse species, growing up to 35 centimeters long. They are commonly found on rocky reefs and seagrass beds in the shallow waters of Southeast Australia. They are ambush predators, feeding on small crustaceans such as zooplankton and tiny shellfish at night.

The biggest threat to seahorses comes from bottom trawling. This indiscriminate fishing gear involves dragging a large and heavily weighted net along the ocean floor, catching all marine life in its path while destroying habitats.

Learn more about this harmful fishing practice and take action to #EndBottomTrawling and save seahorses.

Publicado em 15 de dezembro de 2021, 05:00 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 4 comentários | Deixar um comentário

10 de março de 2021

Hedgehog seahorses susceptible to bottom trawling

By Tolu Amuwo
An amazingly colourful Hedgehog seahorse ( Hippocampus spinosissimus ).  You can tell that it is a  H. spinossisimus  by the spines along it's abdomen and the spiny coronet.  Photo by  iNaturalist  user francescoric.

An amazingly colourful Hedgehog seahorse (Hippocampus spinosissimus). You can tell that it is a H. spinossisimus by the spines along it's abdomen and the spiny coronet. Photo by iNaturalist user francescoric.

This lovely sea creature is a Hedgehog seahorse (Hippocampus spinosissimus) - it was photographed off the coast of the northern Philippines by iNaturalist user Francesco Ricciardi. The Hedgehog seahorse is frequently found on corals and sea sponges, as well as the sandy bottoms of the ocean where they  feed on small crustaceans and other planktonic invertebrates. Unfortunately, their choice of habitat makes them more susceptible to bottom trawling, a harmful fishing practice that sweeps up the seafloor and leads to the destruction and loss of so much marine life. 

The Hedgehog seahorse is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Overfishing is a major threat to this seahorse species, and in particular bottom trawling. It is also one of the most commonly reported seahorses in wildlife trade and used in traditional medicine. More than 70 million seahorses are caught in unmanaged fisheries each year. In fact, “most seahorses in international trade were caught in bottom trawls and other non-selective fisheries. So, most seahorses that are used IN traditional medicine were not caught FOR traditional medicine” says Dr Amanda Vincent, Director, Project Seahorse.

To overcome the pressures placed on their habitats and populations, we must demand an end to:

• bottom trawling – the waste of life is atrocious

• harmful subsidies – we are paying to keep unprofitable fisheries afloat

• illegal, unreported and unmanaged fisheries

• illegal wildlife trade



Learn more:

Publicado em 10 de março de 2021, 10:09 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

24 de setembro de 2020

Protecting Giraffes - Giraffe seahorses that is - in Mozambique

By Ebba Hooft-Toomey

This proud Giraffe seahorse (Hippocampus camelopardalis) was observed in Mozambique by Dr. Louw Claassens (IUCN Seahorse, Pipefish and Seadragon Specialist Group Member), who then uploaded it here. While not much is known about Giraffe seahorses - they are classified as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List - we do know they are found in the coastal waters of southern and eastern Africa.  As seen in this photo, Giraffe seahorses live in estuarine seagrass beds, as well as algal beds and shallow reefs.

The grassroots organization ParCo recently investigated the fishing of seahorses in Mozambique. They found that the majority of seahorses are extracted for the Chinese Traditional Medicine trade, a common use of seahorses from around the world. However, fishing in Mozambique has a unique twist; many fishers use mosquito nets, which have a very fine mesh, to catch aquatic life.

Due to concerns about the seahorse trade, ParCo reached out to Project Seahorse for guidance a few years ago. Now ParCo has developed an inspiring seahorse protection program that focuses on four main agents of conservation in the region: research, education, enforcement, and tourism. First, with the help of Dr. Claassens, they set up a seahorse monitoring program in 2019 which continues to research and survey seahorse population in the area. Second, local fishers who are concerned about conservation help enforce rules by monitoring their peers. Finally, partnership with the Bahia Mar Hotel helps promote seahorse tourism as an alternate source of income for fishermen. The well-rounded approach of ParCo, founded on the idea of helping local communities “realize their vision for change” is a promising example of marine conservation in action.



For more information:

Hippocampus camelopardalis IUCN Red List listing: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/10064/100939136

Dr. Louw Claassens (IUCN Seahorse, Pipefish and Seadragon Specialist Group Member)

ParCo seahorse protection program

Publicado em 24 de setembro de 2020, 03:13 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário

03 de setembro de 2020

Flirtatious Shorthead seahorses

By Ebba Hooft-Toomey

Our latest featured iSeahorse observation is this beautiful Shorthead seahorse (Hippocampus breviceps) by iNaturalist user ken_flan. It is also known as the Knobby seahorse and lives in southwestern and southeastern coastal Australia. It’s clear where this seahorse gets its common names as it is characterized by a short snout and fleshy tendrils on its head and back.

While not much is known about H. breviceps, our director, Dr. Amanda Vincent, researched this mysterious species in 2004 and she discovered a few fascinating facts. For example, H. breviceps moves within quite a small area, from 1 to 12 square meters. Interestingly, movement patterns varied between sexes – with the females moving through twice as much space as males. Both genders tended stay within seaweed beds. Amanda also found that the seahorses engage in displays with opposite sex partners. Surprisingly, these seahorses “flirted” with more than one partner, breaking the assumption that seahorses are monogamous! Even though Amanda’s work made some interesting discoveries it also emphasized the fact that there is a lot more to learn about seahorses.  

Learn more about Hippocampus breviceps

IUCN Red List: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/10063/54904334

iSeahorse: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38085462

Publicado em 03 de setembro de 2020, 11:49 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário

27 de julho de 2020

White's seahorse: one of two Endangered seahorse species

By Ebba Hooft-Toomey

We took a little break from posting featured iSeahorse observations, but we are back at it again! To kick things off we are featuring this gorgeous White’s seahorse (Hippocampus whitei) photographed by user Peter “fiftygrit” in New South Wales, Australia.  White’s seahorse was recently listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, one of two seahorse species listed as Endangered. The biggest threat to its populations is habitat loss. It is thought to be endemic to the Southwest Pacific and it lives in shallow, inshore habitats, both natural and anthropogenic.

Another interesting fact is that Prof. Amanda Vincent, our director and co-founder, began her career by observing White’s seahorses underwater in Australia in 1986. In fact, she was the first scientist to study seahorses underwater. Fast forward a few decades and Amanda’s career is one of the most acclaimed in marine conservation. In May 2020 she became the first marine conservationist to win the world’s top animal conservation award - the prestigious Indianapolis prize.

The prize acknowledges Amanda’s hard work and major conservation achievements. Amanda dedicated her career to understanding and advocating for seahorses, which serve as flagship species for a wide range of marine conservation issues. She and her Project Seahorse team are now focused on bringing an end to harmful fishing practices such as bottom trawling, where industrial nets are dragged across the ocean floor, catching everything in their paths and destroying vital habitats such as coral reefs, mangroves and seagrass beds in the process. Bottom trawling is the single biggest threat to seahorses.

The story of Amanda and seahorses, a story that began with the shy H. whitei of Australia, is an exciting and uplifting example of how cutting-edge research can be turned into effective conservation actions.

For more information on Hippocamus whitei see:

IUCN Red List https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/10088/46721312

iSeahorse: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/44119410

Publicado em 27 de julho de 2020, 06:51 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

13 de maio de 2020

Amanda Vincent wins world’s top award for animal conservation.

Dr Amanda Vincent, Project Seahorse director and co-founder, becomes the first marine conservationist to win the prestigious Indianapolis Prize.

“This prestigious global award allows me to advocate for vastly more attention to the ocean – which accounts for 99 percent of the living space on Earth – and all the species on which the marine ecosystem depends. — Amanda Vincent

Watch an inspiring video and find out more here

Publicado em 13 de maio de 2020, 06:18 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

12 de maio de 2020

Small and mighty (Why the weedy pygmy is going strong)

Pygmy weedy seahorse (Hippocampus pontohi) by

By Rebecca Waines

Our latest iSeahorse featured observation comes from Daniel Schofield (djscho on iNaturalist) who captured this wonderful weedy pygmy (Hippocampus pontohi) amidst the pink corals of Indonesia.

The weedy pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus pontohi) was named after the Indonesian dive guide, Hence Pontoh, who discovered it. As with most pygmy seahorses, it grows to be ~ 1.5 centimeters long, and is typically found between 11-20 m depth. The weedy pygmy’s favorite place to hang is in Halimeda seaweed meadows.  

These Halimeda meadows will, however, become less and less prevalent as the ocean acidifies, meaning that these beautiful creatures will have to branch out and inhabit other areas… Instead of its typical green environment, this featured pygmy is at home in the fuchsia hues of coral and encrusting algae. 

Weedy pygmies are very small - usually no longer than two cm - and can be tricky to spot, but being small has its advantages. Thanks to its size, these seahorses are less exploited than their larger cousins for commercial trade.  

Although their future is uncertain, the size and adaptability of H. pontohi means they have a hopeful chance at continuing to thrive in nature!  Currently, they are listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Daniel Schofield photographs the magnificent marine life of the Indo-Pacific. Thanks to him we can see this species, small and bright, and hanging on (both literally and metaphorically) with its firmly coiled tail…

 Learn more about the weedy pygmy:

Publicado em 12 de maio de 2020, 08:41 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

Gentle (underwater) "giant" of Galapagos - the Pacific seahorse

by Rebecca Waines

Pacific seahorse ( Hippocampus ingens ). Photo by Rémi Bigonneau

Pacific seahorse (Hippocampus ingens). Photo by Rémi Bigonneau

This month’s featured gem of citizen science goes to Rémi Bigonneau (remi_bigonneau on iNaturalist) for this dazzling shot of the Pacific seahorse (Hippocampus ingens) off the coast of the Galapagos Islands.

Extraordinarily large for a seahorse, Pacific seahorses - also known as Giant seahorses - can grow to 31 cm long and are rivaled only by the big bellied seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) which can grow to 34 cm long.

Pacific seahorse populations are typically confined to the coast that runs from California to Peru, which is why this wily island-dwelling population in the Galapagos waters is so special. The Galapagos Islands have been admired around the world ever since a strapping young Darwin stepped foot on them over 150 years ago. At the time, it was the giant tortoises, marine iguanas, and intimately related bird species which left Darwin amazed. Little did he know the treasures that might have awaited him… if only he had gone for a scuba dive.

I’m sure Darwin would have been fascinated to see this species, which, for a fish, is a little bizarre:- its males give birth to live young, its tails coils instead of swishes, and it has a fused jaw, among many other interesting traits.

Unfortunately, these gentle “giants” continue to be caught for use in cultural medicine, the aquarium trade, and the souvenir industry, and are presently listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

If you wish to learn more about the conservation status and efforts of the Pacific seahorse check out the links below:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226558395_Genetic_differentiation_across_eastern_Pacific_oceanographic_barriers_in_the_threatened_seahorse_Hippocampus_ingens

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0022-1112.2004.00429.x

Publicado em 12 de maio de 2020, 08:21 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

08 de outubro de 2019

Of seagulls and seahorses

Our latest iSeahorse featured observation is a well-timed shot of a snapped-up short-snouted seahorse. Marina Gorbunova (melodi_96 on iNaturalist) beheld this beak-beleaguered Hippocampus hippocampus on the edge of the Black Sea.

This is a very exciting encounter from a scientific perspective. When Project Seahorse published a review paper in 2010, summarizing what was known about the predation of seahorses, the only known gnawer of short-snouted seahorses was the loggerhead sea turtle.  As far as we can tell, this is the first visual record of a seagull eating a short-snouted seahorse. And while four seagull species were previously noted in the review as syngnathid predators, all those cases had been of gulls eating pipefishes, not seahorses. We don’t know our seagull species quite like we know our seahorses, but if this particular gull belongs to a species not recorded in 2010, then that would be a brand new seahorse predator to add to the list. Anyone on #TeamBird who can help us out?

How cool is citizen science?! With one opportune shot, we learned something new about seagulls and seahorses, and how they interact at the interface of sea and sky. While wide-scale bottom trawling and habitat degradation are far bigger threats to seahorse survival than the occasional hungry gull, the more we learn about the ecology of Vulnerable species, like H. hippocampus, the better.

Thanks so much, Marina, for contributing to our knowledge base. An avid nature photographer, she’s submitted over one thousand species to iNaturalist, including lifeforms as diverse and whimsical as lingonberries, balkan wall lizards, moon carrots, wrinkled crust and rusty blennies. 

 

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Publicado em 08 de outubro de 2019, 06:01 PM por projectseahorse projectseahorse | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário