CALIFORNIA OAK GALLS

Tree abbrevs.
Blk =Q. kelloggii (California black oak) [R/B]
Blu =Q. douglasii (blue oak) [WH]
Colv =Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) [R/B]
Cyn =Quercus chrysolepis (canyon live oak) [INT]
Eng =Q. engelmannii (Engelmann oak) [WH]
Huc =Q. vacciniifolia (huckleberry oak) [INT]
Inlv =Q. wislizeni (interior live oak): formerly included Shreve & parvula [R/B]
Lea =Q. durata (leather oak) [WH]
Nut =Q. dumosa (Nuttall's scrub oak) [WH]
Ore =Q. garryana (Oregon oak) [WH]
Pal =Q. palmeri (Palmer's oak) [INT]
Scr =Quercus berberidifolia (Calif scrub oak) [WH]
Mul =Q. cornelius-mulleri (Muller's oak--desert scrub) [WH]
Tuc =Q. john-tuckeri (Tucker's oak) [WH]
Val =Q. lobata (valley oak) [WH]

MOST OAKS
Live Oak Witches' Broom Fungus ( Cystotheca lanestris) This mildew causes whitening of affected parts of plant and/or witches’ broom. Colv Cyn Val & Tanbark

WHITE OAKS--INTEGRAL STEM GALLS
Irregular Spindle Gall Wasp (Andricus chrysolepidicola) Lumpy bark-colored acorn-like protuberances. Blu Val Scr Lea
Club Gall Wasp (Andricus coortus) Roundish gall at end of stem, but new stems may grow out of it. Ore Blu Scr

WHITE OAKS—OTHER STEM GALLS
California Gall Wasp (Andricus quercuscalifornicus) All or nearly all white oaks
Beaked Twig Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis plumbella) Gall may not have a beak if found in the southern California desert on turbinella oak. Blu Scr Lea Turbinella
Honeydew Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis eldoradensis) Val Scr Lea Ore
Twig Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis mellifica) Like D. eldoradensis but bark is swollen and ruptured and galls line up in rows and are somewhat smaller. Scr Lea Ore
Round Honeydew Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis canescens) Blu Scr
Clasping Twig Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis prehensa) Scr Lea
Fuzzy Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis washingtonensis) Beige or gray; mealy-granular texture becoming wrinkled; slight stalk. Almost all white oaks
Round Gall Wasp (Cynips conspicuus) [syn. Besbicus conspicuus] Round and neckless—usually has short beige, rust, or brn hair. Blu [Val—per JG]
Dried Peach Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis simulata) Pointed or nippled; photos showing gall interior will help confirm ID. Scr Lea Blu Ore Eng
Bullet Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis mamillana) Ocher-colored gall with nipple. Blu Scr
Coral Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis corallina) Orangy. Ore [Blu—per JG]
Andricus opertus Stringy green/brown fibers coming from the bud or leaf midrib. Scr Lea Blu Val
Disholcaspis conalis Thornlike “witches’ hat gall. Ore

WHITE OAKS--BUD GALLS
Thorn Gall Wasp (Cynips heldae) Spines laterally flattened and usually bent and twisted; rose-pink turning brown. Ore Val
Andricus wiltzae Rosette on terminal buds; see Russo 2006 p. 106. Val
Irregular Spindle Gall Wasp (Andricus chrysolepidicola) Ovoid gall w/ fine hairs. Blu Val Scr Lea
Leafy Oak Gall Wasp (Andricus quercusfoliatus) [syn. Andricus foliatus] Note that BugGuide page does not list any Western oaks for this gall. Val

WHITE OAKS--DETACHABLE LEAF GALLS
Crystalline Gall Wasp (Andricus crystallinus) Blu Scr Lea Ore
Disc Gall Wasp (Andricus parmula) Most white oaks
Yellow Wig Gall Wasp (Andricus fullawayi) Most white oaks
Urchin Gall Wasp (Cynips quercusechinus) Either pink-with-white-tips or red-purple Blu Scr
Convoluted Gall Wasp (Andricus confertus) Leaf underside. Val
Saucer Gall Wasp (Andricus gigas) Edges may be either smooth or toothed. Alternate gen. produces cones on leaves and flowers. Blu Scr Eng
Striped Volcano Gall Wasp (Andricus atrimentus) Alternate generation produces a thin, round, green leaf gall. Blu
Clustered Gall Wasp (Andricus brunneus) Lavender, pink tan, brick etc w/ short cream-colored matted hairs; leaf underside. Most white oaks
Club Gall Wasp (Atrusca clavuloides) Sometimes bent over; parts of leaf turn brown. Val
Plate Gall Wasp (Andricus pattersonae) Leaf underside; plate 107 in Russo 2006. Most white oaks
Hair Stalk Gall Wasp (Dros pedicellatum) Leaf margin vein extension. Blu Val Scr Ore
Urn Gall Wasp (Phylloteras cupella) Leaf underside. See comments here Scr Lea Blu Eng & SW white oaks
Red Cone Gall Wasp (Andricus kingi) Alternate generation produces smallish tapering leaf-edge galls that turn black. Blu Val Ore
Spined Turban Gall Wasp (Cynips douglasii) Blu Val Scr
Cynips multipunctata Gray Midrib Gall Wasp. On leaf underside. Blu
Woollybear Gall Wasp (Atrusca trimaculosa) Roundish gall on leaf underside; Russo 2006 pl. 108. Most white oaks
Sunburst Gall Wasp (Andricus stellaris) Center usually dark red. Blu Ore
Ball-tipped Gall Wasp (Xanthoteras teres) Globe on a pedestal Lea Ore
Pear Gall Wasp (Andricus maculosus) Teardrop; leaf underside. Scr Lea
Hair Stalk Gall Wasp (Andricus pedicellatus) Blu Scr Val Ore
California Jumping Gall Wasp (Neuroterus saltatorius) Most white oaks
Andricus tubifaciens Clusters of bristly crystalline tubes; leaf underside. Ore
Andricus albicomus. Bristly 4mm galls on Ore [0 obs]
Andricus bakkeri This is the “Pinched leaf gall wasp,” Plate 127 of Russo 2006. See pg. 292 of Lyon 1984 Eng Nut Ore
Andricus stellulus Stalked cup. Nut Turbinella
Speckled Gall Wasp (Cynips mirabilis) [Syn: Besbicus mirabilis] Ore
Round Gall Wasp (Cynips conspicuus) Blu [also Val per JG]

WHITE OAKS--INTEGRAL LEAF GALLS
Neuroterus fragilis Roundish swelling of petiole and/or midrib. Blu Scr Lea
Live Oak Erineum Mite (Aceria mackiei) Leaf blisters. Ore ?Lea
Eriophyes trichophila Blue oak erineum mite with fewer, larger blisters/bumps than Aceria mackiei; white/brown hairs. Blu [0 obs!]
Midrib Gall Wasp (Neuroterus washingtonensis) Leaf swellings 1 cm or more in size. [3 obs] Ore
Andricus opertus Stringy green/brown fibers coming from the leaf midrib. Scr Lea Blu Val
California Jumping Gall Wasp (Neuroterus saltatorius) Most white oaks

WHITE OAKS—LEAF PETIOLE GALLS
Andricus reticulatus. Small gall on petiole/leaf base. See pg. 290 of Lyon 1984 and Fig. 1B. Eng in SoCal & some SW species.

RED/BLACK OAKS--INTEGRAL STEM GALLS
Gouty Stem Gall Wasp (Callirhytis quercussuttoni) Integral stem galls that are so abrupt they can look pasted on based on. All red/black oaks
Ruptured Twig Gall Wasp (Callirhytis perdens) Gradual; lengthwise fissures along stem. All red/black oaks

RED/BLACK OAKS--OTHER STEM GALLS
Live Oak Apple Gall Wasp (Amphibolips quercuspomiformis) Spiky round galls; but Garth Harwood notes “I see a good deal of variability in this gall, from finely spiny to billiard-ball smooth (especially while developing, when they can be bright red. ) ...Two other clues ... are the central dot at the distal end ... and the faint 'longitudinal' lines radiating down from that spot along the sides.” All red/black oaks

RED/BLACK OAKS--CATKIN/ACORN GALLS
Kernel Flower Gall Wasp (Callirhytis serricornis) Colv Inlv
Callirhytis congregata All red/black oaks; Colv espec.
Mottled Acorn Gall Wasp (Callirhytis carmelensis) All red/black oaks
Callirhytis eldoradensis

RED/BLACK OAKS--BUD GALLS
Live Oak Bud Gall Wasp (Callirhytis quercusagrifoliae) All red/black oaks

RED/BLACK OAKS--DETACHABLE LEAF GALLS
Pumpkin Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus minusculus) All red/black oaks
Two-horned Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus dubiosus)
Live Oak Apple Gall Wasp (Amphibolips quercuspomiformis) Green-red upcurved gall on leaf underside. All red/black oaks

RED/BLACK OAKS--INTEGRAL LEAF GALLS
Live Oak Erineum Mite (Aceria mackiei) Inlv Colv

Ball Gall Wasp (Callirhytis perfoveata) All red/black oaks
Gouty Stem Gall Wasp (Callirhytis quercussuttoni) This alternate generation galls produces blisters on leaf veins. All red/black oaks
Live Oak Bud Gall Wasp (Callirhytis quercusagrifoliae) This alternate generation galls produces blisters on leaves, petioles, buds. All red/black oaks

RED/BLACK OAKS LEAF—PETIOLE GALLS
Live Oak Petiole Gall Wasp (Melikaiella flora) [syn. Callirhytis flora] Colv Inlv ?Blk
Gouty Stem Gall Wasp (Callirhytis quercussuttoni) This alternate generation galls produces blisters on petioles and leaf veins. All red/black oaks

INTERMEDIATE OAKS--INTEGRAL STEM GALLS
Tapered Stem Gall Wasp (Protobalandricus spectabilis) Russo 2006 describes this as “abruptly swollen”; larval chambers are much better separated by plant tissue than with Dryocosmus asymmetricus.
Kidney Stem Gall Wasp (Andricus reniformis) Variable. Check all JG photos. Cyn Huc Pal

Split Twig Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus asymmetricus)
Andricus frondeum not in Russo 2006 Cyn&? [24 obs]
Neuroterus chrysolepis. This gall is described on pg. 290 of Lyon 1984 As a blisterlike swelling on “young stems” of canyon live oak. Drawing is Fig. 1A on pg. 291. Cyn

INTERMEDIATE OAKS--OTHER STEM GALLS
Beaked Spindle Gall Wasp (Heteroecus pacificus)
Heteroecus melanoderma
Mushroom Gall Wasp (Heteroecus sanctaeclarae)
Potato Gall Wasp (Andricus truckeensis)
Andricus frondeum not in Russo 2006 Cyn&?
Heteroecus malus “[G]alls ... tend to occur in grape-like clusters and have a fine white pubescence when fresh. Underneath ... the galls are green or green with red. Older galls are tan. The galls are monothalamous (single larva). Host is Quercus chrysolepis (canyon live oak)” JG https://joycegross.com/images.php?img=2222_2544 . not in Russo 2006 Cyn&?
Golden Oak Apple Gall Wasp (Andricus vacciniifoliae)
Hairy Gall Wasp (Andricus lasius)

INTERMEDIATE OAKS--BUD GALLS
Torpedo Gall Wasp (Andricus projectus) Red with yellow tip when frest; bud scales at base; on leaf axil or catkin. Cyn

INTERMEDIATE OAKS--DETACHABLE LEAF GALLS
Bowl Gall Wasp (Acraspis patelloides) Cup or hat on midrib; leaf underside. Cyn
Muffin Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis chrysolepidis) Dome-like crust is darkish and rough; sides smooth. All intermediate oaks
Little Urn Gall Wasp (Andricus rotundula) Row or double row of extremely small galls along midrib on leaf underside. Cyn Pal
Little Oak Apple Gall Wasp (Andricus coquilletti) Huc
Hairy Gall Wasp (Andricus lasius) Round and fluffy; dark beige or goldish; leaf underside. Cyn
Woolly Gall Wasp (Heteroecus dasydactyli) Cyn
Acraspis insolens See https://joycegross.com/images.php?search=2&taxon=Paracraspis+insolens&ordr=
Beaked Spindle Gall Wasp (Heteroecus pacificus) ) Alternate generation produces thornlike cone that is tough to pull off leaf underside, normally red to purple.

INTERMEDIATE OAKS--INTEGRAL LEAF GALLS
Round Leaf Gall Wasp (Heteroecus flavens)
Intermediate Oak Disc Wasp (Acraspis guadaloupensis) 6mm; leaf underside. Cyn
Live Oak Erineum Mite (Aceria mackiei). Cyn Huc
Contarinia Leaf tightly rolled to underside. Cyn Huc
Fold Gall Midge (Dasineura silvestrii) Cyn Huc

NON-NATIVE OAKS
Wool-bearing Gall Wasp (Andricus quercuslanigera) Southern live oak in CA

Publicado por nancyasquith nancyasquith, 21 de novembro de 2020, 11:21 MANHÃ

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