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A New Taxon of Echinocereus in Arizona
Wolfgang Blum, Traute & Jörn Oldach (Germany)
Summary
Since the mid-1980s, the authors study Echinocereus species with red flowers in
Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. In this article, they are working on specific forms
of central Arizona, north-western Arizona and southwest Utah. Here, the
differences between E. canyonensis and a similar taxon are investigated.
Introduction
After the first named author published the Echinocereus monograph in 1998 with coauthors
MICHAEL LANGE, WERNER RIsCHER and JÜRGEN RUTOW, members of the
Echinocereus study team contributed to new conclusions, which were subsequently
published by different authors. Thanks to the first descriptions of E. santaritensis and E.
arizonicus subsp. nigrihorridispinus - both of W. BLUM & J. RUTOW - and the subsequent
description of E. yavapaiensis by MARC A. BAKER, we could set clearer boundaries within
the red flowered Echinocereus of Arizona. We could clarify that E. canyonensis and E.
toroweapensis are clearly identical. The habitat of E. canyonensis is very limited, regions
of the counties of Mohave and Coconino, on both banks of the Colorado River, centred in
supai. The two typical sites of E. canyonensis and E. toroweapensis are both about 40 km
to the east and west of supai.
L. BENsON denominates these three taxa as E. triglochidiatus var. melanocanthus or var.
neomexicanus. According to the current state of knowledge, this is a group of very different
taxa. Under this collective name, there were taxa now known and accepted as :

  • polyacanthus G. Engelmann
  • coccineus G. Engelmann subsp. coccineus
  • coccineus subsp.roemeri (P.A.F. Muehlenpfordt) W. Blum, M. Lange & J. Rutow
  • coccineus subsp.rosei (E.O. Wooton& P.C. standley) W. Blum, J. Rutow
  • canyonensis E.U. Clover & M.L. Jotter
  • santaritensis W. Blum & J. Rutow
  • yavapaiensis M.A. Baker
  • arizonicus J.N. Rose ex C.R. Orcutt subsp. nigrihorridispinus W. Blum & J. Rutow
    The current study examines specimens of Echinocereus “coccineus” blooming red in the
    central region and the north-western Arizona and in the southwest of the neighboring
    Utah, with the distinctly differing criteria of E. canyonensis.
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    Echinocereus bakeriW. Blum, Traute & Joern Oldach spec. nov.
    Holotype
    UsA, Arizona, Yavapai County, Collector: Marc A. Baker 13930, 18 March 2001, Yavapai
    Co., north of Clarkdale, 1065 m NN, [ASU0076433]
    Isotype
    UsA, Arizona, Yavapai County, Collector: Marc A. Baker 13930, 18 March 2001, Yavapai
    Co., north of Clarkdale, 1065 m NN, [US 01095080]
    Paratypes
    UsA, Arizona, Yavapai County, Collector: Marc A. Baker 11740, 22 April 1995, north of
    Clarkdale, 1094m
    [ASU0076412]
    UsA, Arizona, Yavapai County, Collector: Marc A. Baker 11757, 22 April 1995, north of
    Clarkdale, 1091m [ASU0076424]
    UsA, Arizona, Yavapai County, Collector: Marc A. Baker 13929, 18 March 2001, north of
    Clarkdale, 1065m [ASU0076434]
    UsA, Arizona, Yavapai County, Collector: Marc A. Baker 11757, 22 April 1995, north of
    Clarkdale, 1091m [DES 0054744]
    Comparing: left: E. bakeri; right: E. canyonensis
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    Echinocereus bakeri: Holotype: Herbarium Arizona State University, Collector: MARC A. BAKER
    13930, Arizona, Yavapai Co., north of Clarkdale, 1065 m NN, [ASU 0076433]
    http://swbiodiversity.org/imglib/seinet/ASU/201312/ASU0076433.jpg
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    Etymology
    Was named in honour of MARC A. BAKER, which due to its field research, has contributed
    to a better understanding of the genus Echinocereus in the United states.
    Characteristic criteria:

  • E. bakeri already takes shape at a juvenile stage, canyonensis takes shape significantly
    later.
    -Number of ribs: E. bakeri 9-11, E. canyonensis 11-14
    -Number of of radial spines: E. bakeri 7-11, E. canyonensis 9-13
    -Number of central spines: E. bakeri 1-2, rarely 3-4, E. canyonensis 4-7
    -Flower length: E. bakeri 50-70 mm, diameter 35-45 mm,

  • Flower length: E. canyonensis 30-45 mm, diameter 15-35mm,
    -Nectar chamber length: E. bakeri 6-9 mm, E. canyonensis 2,5-6mm.
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    Diagnosis (English)

  • bakeri sprouts even as a very young plant, canyonensis clumping later
    -Less ribs: E. bakeri 9 - 11, E. canyonensis 11 - 14
    -Average less radial spines: E. bakeri 7 - 11, E. canyonensis 9 - 13
    -Less central spines: E. bakeri1 – 2, rarely 3 - 4, E. canyonensis 4 - 7
    -The constant larger flowers: E. bakeri 50 - 70mm long, 35 – 45mm in diameter,
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    E. canyonensis 30 - 45mm long, 15 - 35mmin diameter
    -The larger nectar chamber: E. bakeri 6-9mm long, E. canyonensis 2.5 to 6mm long
    Distribution of members of the E. coccineus group in Arizona
    white dot = type localities
    pink spot = Echinocereus santaritensis W. Blum & J. Rutow
    red spot = Echinocereus yavapaiensis Marc A. Baker
    blue spot = Echinocereus bakeri W. Blum and Traute & Joern Oldach
    blue spot with red dot = E. bakeri x E. yavapaiensis
    green spot = Echinocereus canyonensis E. Clover & L. Jotter
    [green spot with black dot is synonym of E. toroweapensis (P.C. Fisher) Fuersch]
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    E. bakeri, male flowers, mid-April 2014
    E. bakeri, female flowers, mid-April 2014
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    Echinocereus bakeri
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    E. bakeri, flower cut, mid-April 2014
    E. bakeri, fruit cut, mid-June 2014
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    Currently, we know a place where E. yavapaiensis and E. bakeri hybridize. The plants of this
    site, as evidence MARC A. BAKER (MAB 14,367.2) are pentaploid and also produce seeds,
    following MARC. This population of Bradshaw Mountains in Yavapai County is located in
    the centre of the range of E. yavapaiensis.
    We don’t know of any other hybrid between E. bakeri and other Echinocereus taxa,
    although they grow almost anywhere in the immediate vicinity. In parallel and regarding
    E. canyonensis, there are multiple sites where hybrids were recorded with E. engelmannii
    (Engelmann) C.A. Lemaire.
    Text & photos: Wolfgang Blum, Traute & Jörn Oldach
    Aknowledgements
    I want to thank all those who contributed to the writing and publication of this article.
    specifically, I want to thank (in alphabetical order):
    Baker, Marc A., Chino Valley, UsA
    Fertig, Walter, Herbarium AsU
    Merou, Laetitia, stuttgart
    Rutow, Jürgen, Kelmis, Belgium
    for making available info and visual material, also for their general support,
    and the following herbaria:
    ARIZ (Herbarium school of Plant sciences University of Arizona Herring Hall, P.O. Box
    210036Tucson, Arizona 85721-0036 U.s.A.)
    ASC (Deaver Herbarium Biological sciences Department Northern Arizona University P.O. Box
    Echinocereus bakeri
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    BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES:
    BAKER, M.A. (2006): A new florally dimorphic hexaploid, Echinocereusyavapaiensis sp. nov. (sectionTriglochidiatus,
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    BAKER, M.A. (2006): CIRCUMsCRIPTION OF ECHINOCEREUs ARIZONICUs sUBsP. ARIZONICUs: PHENETIC ANALYsIs OF
    MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERs IN sECTION TRIGLOCHIDIATUs (CACTACEAE), PART II. Madrono53(4): 388 - 399
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    (Proc.Calif.Acad.sci., ser. IV), 25: 245 - 268
    BENsON, L. (1969): Cacti of Arizona, ed. 3. - The University of Arizona Press, Tucson
    BENsON, L. (1982): The Cacti of the United states and Canada. - stanford University Press, stanford, California
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    BLUM, W. (1999): Echinocereus toroweapensis (Fisher) Fürschisteinjüngeres Homonym von E. canyonensis Clover &
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    HOLMGREN, N.H. et al. (2012): Intermountain Flora: Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.s.A. subclass
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    MAssOW, M. (2009): Die lang ersehnte Fahrt zum Toroweap Point. - Ecf.: 22(2): 49 - 54
    RUINNARD, H.P. (2011): Besuch in Chloride, Arizona. - Ecf.: 24(3): 60 - 67
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    RUTOW, J. (1990): Echinocereus pacificus auch in Arizona? - Der Echinocereenfreund 4 (1): 21
    RUTOW, J. (1991): Nachtragzu Echinocereus pacificus auch in Arizona? - Der Echinocereenfreund 5 (1): 17
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    WOODRUFF, D.W. (2014): Die rotblühenden Echinocereus-Arten in Utah. - 27(3): 75 - 84
    5640 Flagstaff, Arizona 86011-5640 U.s.A.)
    ASU (Herbarium school of Life sciences Arizona state University P.O. Box 874501 Tempe, Arizona
    85287-4501 U.s.A.)
    DES (Herbarium Research Department Desert Botanical Garden1201 North Galvin Parkway
    Phoenix, Arizona 85008 U.s.A.)
    GCNP (Museum Collection Herbarium Grand Canyon National ParkP.O. Box 129Grand Canyon,
    Arizona 86023-0129U.s.A.)
    MNA (Walter B. McDougall Herbarium Museum of Northern Arizona 3101 North Fort Valley Road
    Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 U.s.A.).
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