18 de setembro de 2021

12 de setembro de 2021

Grass of Parnassus or Parnassia identification in Manitoba

occurring in Manitoba according to Vascan as of this date...

More frequently observed

Parnassia glauca - Fen Grass of Parnassus

few branches on the staminodia
stems leafless or with a leaf near the base
broadly ovate basal leaves

Parnassia palustris - Marsh Grass of Parnassus

many branches on the staminodia
some stems have leaf near middle
cordate basal leaves

Infrequently observed

Parnassia kotzebuei - Kotzebuei's Grass of Parnassus

sepals longer than petals, stems leafless or with a leaf near the base

Parnassia parviflora - Small flowered Grass of Parnassus

significantly smaller overall than palustris or glauca,

Publicado em 12 de setembro de 2021, 04:58 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

30 de agosto de 2021

the first group - Solidago Section Ptarmicoidei

Foolhardily sorting pieces into groups and having a go at the 'easy' ones

You will see my local observer bias in this page - this resource is oriented at someone who is learning the plants around them. They expect to encounter these plants again and again as they visit and revisit the places where they make observations. The first hurdle for this is to learn what is expected to be found based on past experience - yours and those who have come before - and then to be ready to recognize the exceptions - the unexpected.

In this way, observers are primed to document more thoroughly those individual plants that don't fit the expectations as well as being able to more efficiently document the commonly known things by showing in their images just what is needed to confirm the id.

Now back to the puzzle...

Section Ptarmicoidei https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/556079-Ptarmicoidei

these are the plants that were once spun off into their own genus Oligoneuron and then got sucked back into Solidago. They all have their flower heads organized as corymbs which gives them a general wide at the top flattened profile https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corymb

So the corollary is that flowerheads need to be present ( in bud, in flower, in seed) to separate these plants (until you become very familiar with your particular group of goldenrods and how they grow year round) and an image of the flowerhead from the side showing the corymb form should be included in the observation - if the flower is floppy or the wind is blowing, I have found you can stand close to the plant so the stem is braced against your pant leg and take the photo you need - if you have a better strategy, feel free to share below.

Remember it is possible to identify to Section without going all the way to species - so once you see that corymb on a solidago you can go ahead and id to that level - then in this section you only have 8 candidates to deal with in N. America ( and only 3 in our locality plus a hybrid - bonus!)

Here's the list... once you have the corymb documented, check that you have an image showing the distinct features (suggestions from other identifiers are welcome!) and either a description or a wide shot to give an idea of the habitat - your identifiers will be so relieved to stop muttering under their breath 'but where's the...'

Species Found locally Frequency locally habitat key features ( # observed in North America) Other places found in North America
Solidago rigida MB/SK/ND2, 3 commonly observed prairies, open woods1 - needs lots of sun, does not like taller neighbours, tolerates drought well felty surface, avoided by grazers, sturdy stems, stem leaves often pressed vertically against the stem (4,000+) AB, ON, AL, AR, CO, CT, DC, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV, WY3
Solidago ptarmicoides MB/SK/ND2, 3 frequently observed dry, sandy, usually calcareous soils, cracks in rocks, limestone pavements, rocky outcrops, grassy slopes, prairies1 low tufted plant, white flowers, looks almost like an aster (1000+) NB, ON, QC, AR, CO, CT, GA, IA, IL, IN, MA, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, NH, NY, OH, OK, SC, SD, TN, VT, WI, WV, WY3
Solidago riddellii MB/ND2, 3 rarely observed wet prairies, oak savannahs and marshy ground1 leaves that are folded along the midrib1 (400+) ON, AR, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, OH, SD, WI3
Solidago maheuxii aka Solidago X maheuxii MB3 not yet Parents S. rigida × riddellii (1) VT3
Solidago houghtonii - absent wet depressions in sand dunes and limestone alvars1 (50+) ON, MI, NY3
Solidago nitida - absent prairies and open woods1 (50+) AR, LA, MS, OK, TX3
Solidago ohioensis - absent wet areas in sand dunes, marshes, riverbanks1 (450+) ON, IL, IN, MI, NY, OH, WI3
Solidago vossii - absent wet prairies1 (10+) Michigan endemic3

  1. J.C. Semple. Solidago https://uwaterloo.ca/astereae-lab/research/goldenrods
    check out the very lovely detailed range maps on this site as well as the lively descriptions

  2. VASCAN https://data.canadensys.net/vascan/search?lang=en
  3. Nature Serve https://explorer.natureserve.org/

Publicado em 30 de agosto de 2021, 05:23 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário

Solidago - tipping the jigsaw out of the box

Here's the list of goldenrods that we would like to be able to identify that occur in Manitoba and/or Saskatchewan and/or North Dakota



  • Subsection Triplinerviae

    • Species Solidago gigantea (MB/SK/ND)
      -- Variety Solidago gigantea var. gigantea (MB)
      -- Variety Solidago gigantea var. shinnersii (MB/SK)

    • Species Solidago canadensis (MB/SK/ND)
      -- Variety Solidago canadensis var. canadensis (MB/SK)

    • Species Solidago altissima (MB/SK/ND)
      -- Variety Solidago altissima var. altissima (MB/SK)
      -- Variety Solidago altissima var. gilvocanescens (MB/SK)

    • Species Solidago lepida (MB/SK)
      -- Variety Solidago lepida var. salebrosa (MB/SK)
      -- Variety Solidago lepida var. lepida (MB/SK)

  • Subsection Glomeruliflorae

  • Subsection Squarrosae

  • Subsection Junceae

  • Subsection Solidago

  • Subsection Nemorales

    • Species Solidago nemoralis (MB/SK/ND)
      -- Subspecies Solidago nemoralis subsp. decemflora (MB/SK)
      -- Subspecies Solidago nemoralis subsp. nemoralis (MB)

    • Species Solidago mollis (MB/SK/ND)

  • Subsection Maritimae

  • Subsection Humiles

  • Section Ptarmicoidei

  • hybrids

    • Species Solidago ×lutescens (MB/SK) aka Oligoneuron x lutescens
    • Species Solidago ×bernardii (MB) aka Oligoneuron x bernardii

  • Publicado em 30 de agosto de 2021, 03:03 AM por marykrieger marykrieger | 9 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    18 de agosto de 2021

    iNaturalist in the classroom - an upcoming CWF webinar August 26, 2021

    from CWF

    You Are Invited!

    Please join us online on August 26, 2021 at 3:00-4:00 p.m. ET for a webinar using iNaturalist.ca to engage people and collect data.

    Join Michael Leveille on Thursday, August 26, 2021 at 3:00 p.m. ET as he showcases how he has incorporated iNaturalist into the classroom. During COVID-19 he created an incredible series of 23 virtual field trips around the Ottawa Area for Grades 5 to 8. Come join our CWF webinar to discuss ways to incorporate outdoor learning and iNaturalist into the classroom.

    About Michael: Michael Leveille (Swampy on iNaturalist.ca) is a science educator and an artist of prehistoric life. Educated at the University of Ottawa, he has worked at the Canadian Museum of Nature and at St-Laurent Academy School in Ottawa.

    Mr. Leveille believes that experiential learning across multiple disciplines is a valuable education tool. His Macoun Marsh study site and outdoor classroom is used as a center for conservation, geological, and meteorological studies.

    Publicado em 18 de agosto de 2021, 03:56 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    16 de agosto de 2021

    Lactuca in Manitoba - more puzzles :)



    Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fernald - Tall Blue Lettuce

    • (BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL-N NL-L) Vascan
    • blue flowers, leaves irregularly pinnatifid, ; pappus brown, achenes nearly beakless2
    • biennial2
    • swampy or moist places; boreal forest 1

    Lactuca canadensis Linnaeus - Canada Wild Lettuce

    • (MB ON QC NB PE NS) Vascan
    • yellow flowers
    • rare, boreal forest 1

    Lactuca floridana (Linnaeus) Gaertner - Woodland Lettuce

    • (MB ON) Vascan
    • blue flowers
    • leaves petiolate, toothed and often also pinnatifid, pubescent on the underside of the main veins; pappus white 1
    • margins of woods, boreal forest1
    • rarely observed

    Lactuca ludoviciana (Nuttall) Riddell - Western Lettuce

    • (SK MB) Vascan
    • yellow or blue flowers, leaves mostly pinnatifid, spinulose margined and more or less prickly on the mid-rib beneath and strongly glaucous, pappus white, achenes distinct soft filiform beak, 2
    • along riverbanks, parklands1
    • rarely observed


    Lactuca serriola Linnaeus - Prickly Lettuce

    • Vascan
    • yellow flowers
    • leaves copiously spinulose-denticulate, spinulose bristly on mid rib underneath and tending to turn with one edge up2
    • very common; roadsides, slough margins, waste places, cultivated land; throughout Prairie provinces1
    • previously known as Lactuca scariola



    Mulgedium pulchellum (Pursh) G. Don - Blue Lettuce

    • (BC AB SK MB ON QC) Vascan
    • blue flowers
    • leaves entire, lower leaves may be more or less lobed; pappus white, achenes with short firm beak2
    • perennial2
    • common...cultivated lands and roadsides, throughout Prairie provinces1
    • previously known as Lactuca pulchella or Lactuca tatarica var pulchella

    What I am going to try out

    looks like habitat, flower color / number and leaves are the most helpful things - with a nod to the color of the pappus - that is the fluffy stuff attached to the seed to help it drift on the wind.

    the prickly ones...

    • if the plant is in proximity to human disturbance and the flower is yellow and the leaves are turned to be perpendicular to the ground- edge to the sky >>> Lactuca serriola
    • if the plant is along a river (or other damp to wet ground) and the flowers are yellow or blue >>> Lactuca ludoviciana (L ludoviciana tends to have more flowerheads (12-20) over L serriola (5-12))

    the non-prickly ones....

    • if the flowers are blue and the pappus is white and the upper leaves are entire and the plant is commonly seen >>> Mulgedium pulchellum / Lactuca pulchella (two names for the same plant)
    • if the flowers are blue and the pappus is brown and the leaves are pinnatifid and the plant is in a wet spot in the boreal>>> Lactuca biennis (especially if the plant is 2 meters or taller)
    • if the flowers are blue and the pappus is white and the leaves are pinnatifid and the plant is at a forest edge in the boreal>>> Lactuca floridana
    • if the flowers are yellow >>>Lactuca canadensis


    1. Budd, A.C.; Looman, J., Best, K.F., Budd's Flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces, 1979 Ottawa
    2. Scoggan, H.J, Flora of Manitoba, 1957 Ottawa

    Publicado em 16 de agosto de 2021, 02:45 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    06 de agosto de 2021

    Manitoba Yellow Waterlilies

    @cdh asked me for more info on Yellow Waterlilies (Nuphar) in Manitoba - so I am reworking my answer to that specific question into this journal post in the hope that it is useful to someone else as well.

    At the current state of knowledge we have only two species of Nuphar found here.

    The leaves of N. microphylla do not get larger than 10 cm long while N. variegata leaves are generally 7-35 cm in length; flower size has a similar pattern - N. microphylla 1-5 cm and N. variegata 5-11 cm. This size difference is the main characteristic I have been using for my ids to date.

    Other things to look for are:

    • N. microphylla has a red disk with 6-10 rays, globose fruit with no decaying stamens at its base, a narrow v shaped sinus on the leaf;
    • N. variegata has a green or yellow disk with 7-25 rays, fruit is constricted above with decaying stamens at its base when young and a closed or narrow sinus on the leaf.

    My source for all these details is Scoggan's Flora of Manitoba - still usable after all these years once I figure out the changes in the names.

    As to why only N. variegata as opposed to N. lutea and all the rest- my suspicion is that N. variegata has better adaptation to the long cold winter :) Scoggan describes N. microphyllum as occurring in the southern half of the province with the northernmost collection at Cranberry Portage and N. variegatum occurring in the southern four-fifths of the province with the northernmost collection at Reindeer Lake

    Have fun looking for them both!

    Publicado em 06 de agosto de 2021, 03:02 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    31 de julho de 2021

    Third day of the NCC Bioblitz - Fungi, Lichens and Mosses

    Today's highlighted organisms in the NCC bioblitz are Fungi, Lichens and Mosses. This group includes a huge variety of organisms, most of which we know very little about. As the organisms are generally on the small side, getting up close and personal so that the identifiers can see very small details is really helpful. Here's a link to the guide that BC naturalists prepared to help observers new to nature photography and iNaturalist.

    Like our leafminers and gall makers from yesterday, fungi (and lichens) are specialists. Identifiers need to know where you found them. For those species that are growing on other organisms (like those woody plants you are still hunting for) which plant is hosting the fungi can separate one species from another. If you find any of the plum family in your travels, then you probably also have found Black Knot - a fungus that only grows on these woody plants.

    This fungus is a good organism found in Manitoba for new identifiers to learn. It is quite distinctive and though you might previously not have known its name, you have probably already noticed it on your outings.

    Here's how to get started....

    1. Click on the Identify link at the top of the web page.
    2. Type 'Black Knot' into the Search Species box and then pick Black Knot from the options in the drop down - at this point all the little pictures should switch to show observations that have a single id of Black Knot already.
    3. Type 'Manitoba" where the box says 'Canada' and pick Manitoba, CA province from the list - now you will have a list of picture of all the observations from Manitoba that have a single id of Black Knot
    4. Look at each observation to see if you recognize Black Knot fungus in the images supplied - you can click on the square to see the images full size - or even use the view link to see the observation on its own page.
    5. If you agree, then click Agree - If you don't agree or you are not sure, you don't need to do anything, just go to the next image

    Now if when you go looking for unidentified pictures of Black Knot, there are none in the list - you can always come back later. There will be more tomorrow.

    It is important to pace yourself when contributing identifications. As soon as you start to feel grumpy or overwhelmed, it is time to stop and do something else for a while. As my grandmother would say, 'Rome wasn't built in a day."

    Here's another resource on identification from the iNaturalist resources page.

    Publicado em 31 de julho de 2021, 03:29 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    30 de julho de 2021

    Second day of the NCC Bioblitz - Insects

    Remember all those woody plants that you found yesterday - when you were taking photographs of the leaves and branches, you may have already found some observations of insects - today's highlighted organisms in the NCC bioblitz .

    As insects are a favored food for many other organisms, they have developed some fascinating strategies to keep from being eaten. One thing they do is to live inside plants. As you might expect, the plants are somewhat inconvenienced by these interlopers and do their best to make them feel unwelcome. The insects in turn develop defenses against the plants defenses in a tit for tat evolutionary process that ends up creating close associations between some insects and the plants that they inhabit.

    Leaf miner larvae live between the two layers of a plant leaf until they are ready to transform into an adult. The shape and location of the leaf mine together with the id of the plant are usually enough to identify which species you have observed. Here's some that have been observed in Manitoba to date.

    Gall maker larvae secrete chemical triggers that cause the plant cells to grow in unusual ways creating both ample food and defense for themselves until they become adults. Galls can be quite sturdy structure that can even persist through the winter, allowing the insect to overwinter inside. The shape and location of the gall together with the id of the plant is often all that is needed to identify the insect. Here's some that have been observed in Manitoba to date.

    And the bonus of observing leaf miners and galls is that they cannot fly away - you have plenty of time to zoom in and get that great closeup.

    There are two traditional projects that track observations of these groups. Traditional projects require you to add your observation manually to be included. Adding your gall or leaf miner observation to these projects helps the specialist identifier community find your observations.

    Have fun :)

    Publicado em 30 de julho de 2021, 02:37 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

    29 de julho de 2021

    First day of the NCC National Bioblitz - Trees and Shrubs

    The Nature Conservancy of Canada is holding their second national bioblitz beginning today. This one is a 'members only' bioblitz so remember to join the project if you would like your observations to appear in the project totals. The NCC also has more things planned if you also register your participation with them on their website.

    Joining the project will also make the projects daily posts appear in your daily feed on your dashboard. Their first post highlight trees and shrubs - the woody infrastructure of our natural communities. I thought it would be a good opportunity to take a look at how we are doing with observing the woody species that are big enough to make trees and that are native to Manitoba.

    You could use this list to check how many you can find - the easiest to find and identify are at the top and it gets harder as you go down. If you would like even more challenge, you can generate your own checklist of native shrubs in Manitoba over at the VASCAN Checklist generator.

    Have fun!

    Common Name Scientific Name form RG obs all obs % id Description
    Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa Tree 583 706 82.58% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54781
    Manitoba Maple Acer negundo Tree 568 641 88.61% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/47726
    Trembling Aspen Populus tremuloides Tree 396 591 67.01% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54840
    Chokecherry Prunus virginiana Tree, Shrub 307 415 73.98% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54835
    Paper Birch Betula papyrifera Tree 173 304 56.91% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/49883
    Jackpine Pinus banksiana Tree 137 197 69.54% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/58724
    Tamarack Larix laricina Tree 136 171 79.53% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/58721
    White Spruce Picea glauca Tree 124 414 29.95% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/117326
    Balsam Fir Abies balsamea Tree 119 139 85.61% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54261
    Wolf Willow Elaeagnus commutata Tree, Shrub 96 111 86.49% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/162212
    Balsam Poplar Populus balsamifera Tree 68 207 32.85% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54838
    Eastern White Cedar Thuja occidentalis Tree 67 147 45.58% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54037
    Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides Tree 50 249 20.08% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/52119
    Basswood Tilia americana Tree 46 189 24.34% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54854
    American Elm Ulmus americana Tree 39 243 16.05% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/53547
    Silver Buffaloberry Shepherdia argentea Tree, Shrub 31 57 54.39% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/79071
    Black Spruce Picea mariana Tree 29 83 34.94% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/84296
    Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Tree 27 41 65.85% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54808
    Canada Plum Prunus nigra Tree, Shrub 20 81 24.69% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54832
    Pin Cherry Prunus pensylvanica Tree, Shrub 19 70 27.14% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54833
    Black Ash Fraxinus nigra Tree 18 390 4.62% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54807
    Red Pine Pinus resinosa Tree 18 63 28.57% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/52383
    Red-berried Elder Sambucus racemosa Tree, Shrub 15 46 32.61% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/57824
    Peach-leaved Willow Salix amygdaloides Tree, Shrub 9 52 17.31% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54842
    Common Hackberry Celtis occidentalis Tree 6 12 50.00% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54857
    Eastern Hop-Hornbeam Ostrya virginiana Tree 4 9 44.44% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54771
    White Pine Pinus strobus Tree 4 8 50.00% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/52391
    Water Birch Betula occidentalis Tree 3 15 20.00% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/75764
    Bigtooth Aspen Populus grandidentata Tree 2 3 66.67% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54839
    Showy Mountain-Ash Sorbus decora Tree, Shrub 1 9 11.11% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54266
    Alaskan Paper Birch Betula neoalaskana Tree 0 0 0.00% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/159229
    Pacific Willow Salix lasiandra Tree, Shrub 0 1 0.00% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/78943
    Scouler’s Willow Salix scouleriana Tree, Shrub 0 4 0.00% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/71076
    Alaska Willow Salix alaxensis Tree, Shrub 0 0 0.00% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/168313
    Fleshy Hawthorn Crataegus succulenta Tree, Shrub 0 0 0.00% https://inaturalist.ca/taxa/54822

    Publicado em 29 de julho de 2021, 03:25 PM por marykrieger marykrieger | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário