28 de agosto de 2023

The complete Flora Iberica

Flora Iberica has been completed and its volumes are now downloadable from the site of the Digital Library or the Royal Botanic Garden of Madrid:
https://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/records/item/9895-flora-iberica?offset=1

Posted on segunda-feira, 28 de agosto de 2023, 23:37h by blue_celery blue_celery | 1 comentário | Deixar um comentário

07 de agosto de 2023

Why I have decided to unfollow many users.

This is simply because I have the necessity to find comments and other users' identifications in my board. To do so among the hundred observations the users I followed post everyday had become a really difficult task.
So, it is not that I do not esteem you anymore.

Posted on segunda-feira, 07 de agosto de 2023, 16:43h by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

09 de março de 2023

12 de setembro de 2022

Pink-flowered fumitories

This post regards those species that feature flowers with corolla that is pink at the beginning of flowering, not those with a corolla that becomes pink to purple with age.
When I started identifying fumitories in iNat I noticed that in some cases there was some confusion in these pink-flowered species and it happened that in some geographical areas for them the identification as F. officinalis was suggested by the AI. Actually, F. officinalis in some areas seems rather rare while other species such as F. bastardii and F. muralis regard the vast majority of observations.

Here a key to distinguish these species

1 - Corolla shorter than 9 mm. Sepals lanceolate. Upper petal with almost almost flat margins at apex, broadly spathulate and often slightly emarginate. Fruit usually broader than long, broader in upper half, emarginate or truncate at apex, very rarely broadly rounded. Inflorescence rich with 10 to 80 flowers. Leaves laciniae comparatively much narrower: F. officinalis s.l.
1' - Corolla longer than (8-)9 mm. Sepals ovate to suborbicular. Upper petal with margins from slightly to strongly bent upwards at apex, never spathulate but subobtuse to subacute. Fruit slightly longer than broad, broader in the middle, rounded at apex. Inflorescence comparatively less rich with with 8 to 25 flowers. Leaves laciniae comparatively much broader: 2

2 - Inflorescence usually longer than peduncle (very rarely as long as or shorter), with 10-23(26) flowers. Corolla (8)9-11(12) mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 2,5-3,5 x 1,5-2,5(3?) mm, usually distinctly dentate at margin. Upper petal pink or dark purple at apex. Fruit strongly rugose when dried. Stigma?: F. bastardii
2' - Inflorescence usually longer than peduncle (rarely as long as or shorter?), with 8-20(25) flowers. Corolla 10-15 mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 3-5 x (1,5)2-2,5(3) mm, usually subentire or with soem teeth at base. Upper petal dark purple at apex. Fruit smooth or slightly rugulose when dried. Stigma with a distinctly visible central appendix that is longer than the two lateral ones: F. reuteri
2'' - Inflorescence usually shorter than or as long as peduncle (very rarely longer), with 8-15(20) flowers. Corolla (8)9-12(13) mm long. Sepals ovate or elliptical or rarely suborbicular, 2,5-5 x (1,5)2-2,5(3) mm, dentate or subentire at margin. Upper petal dark purple at apex. Fruit smooth or slightly rugulose when dried. Stigma with a barely visible central appendix that is shoter than the two lateral ones: F. muralis s.l.

  • F. officinalis is easily identified, even without measuring corolla length, because the upper petal is flat and very broad apex. The inflorescence is always very rich in flowers. If fruits are available, they are extremely typical being rather broad (broader in upper third) with the apex usually emarginate or truncate.
  • F. bastardii can often be easily identified when the upper petal is concolorous being pink and not purple at apex and when it has a relatively rich inflorescence. The observation of the dried fruit surface is easy with just a linen tester and can be decisive to exclude both F. muralis and F. reuteri.
  • F. reuteri and F. muralis are often hard to distinguish also in consideration that, at least, F. muralis can rarely show an inflorescence longer than peduncle. A reliable identification should need the observation of the stigma with a microscope.

Anyway, the recommendations made in this previous post are still valid:
https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/blue_celery/31675-fumaria-what-to-photograph-for-the-identification

References:
Lidén, M. 1986. Synopsis of Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae) with a monograph of the tribe Fumarieae. Opera Botanica 88: 1-133.
Lidén, M. 1986b. Fumaria L. In S. Castroviejo & al. (eds.): Flora Iberica 1: 447-467.
http://www.floraiberica.es/floraiberica/texto/pdfs/01_038_13_Fumaria.pdf
Murphy, R.J. 2009. Fumitories of Britain and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles.

Posted on segunda-feira, 12 de setembro de 2022, 09:34h by blue_celery blue_celery | 4 comentários | Deixar um comentário

18 de maio de 2022

Malva sylvestris vs multiflora vs neglecta vs nicaeensis vs parviflora (key)

Malva sylvestris vs multiflora vs nicaeensis vs parviflora

1 - Epicalyx united at least in lower half. Petals 12-25(30) mm long, 2-3 times as long as calyx; with purple or deep pink stripes over a lilac background. Fruits smooth or slightly rugose. Leaves often somehow greysh-green. Annuals: Malva multiflora (=M. pseudolavatera)
1' - Epicalyx pieces separated. Petals 2,5-30(35) mm long, shorter than calyx or up to 5 times as long as calyx; whitish or tinged with rose in upper half or with purple or deep pink stripes over a lilac or pink background. Fruits reticulate or smooth. Leaves green. Annuals or perennials: 2

2 - Petals 15-30(35) mm long, up to 5 times as long as calyx, with purple or deep pink stripes over a pink background. Perennials: M. sylvestris
2' - Petals 2,5-12 mm long, shorter or up to twice as long as calyx, whitish or coloured with rose in upper half. Annuals (rarely parennials in M. neglecta): 3

3 - Petals 2,5-5 mm long, shorter to slightly longer than calyx, completely whitish or faintly rose-coloured at apex and without pink stripes. Calyx distinctly accrescent at fructification. Stem subglabrous: M. parviflora
3' - Petals 6-14 mm long, 1,2-twice as long as calyx, totally white or with faint pink stripes over a white or very light pinkish background or with pink stripes over a whitish background and pinkish at apex. Calyx not accrescent at fructification. Stem rather densely hairy: 4

4 - Petals with pink stripes over a whitish background and pinkish at apex, rarely whitish and with faint stripes. Fruits strongly reticulate, more often glabrous, rarely hairy. Epycalix pieces ovate or oblong-ovate, relatively broad and close to each other. Plants more often erect: M. nicaeensis
4' - Petals totally white or with faint pink stripes over a white or very light pinkish background. Fruits smooth or slightly reticulate, densely hairy. Epycalix pieces linear or narrowly lanceolate, narrow and distant from each other. Plants more often prostrate or decumbent: M. neglecta

Posted on quarta-feira, 18 de maio de 2022, 13:19h by blue_celery blue_celery | 2 comentários | Deixar um comentário

04 de maio de 2022

In search for the true Tragopogon porrifolius

Tragopogon is a rather critical genus as far as its taxonomy is concerned.
Here in the Mediterranean there are at least two other species resembling T. porrifolius L., T. eriospermus Ten. and T. cupanii Guss. ex DC., the latter endemics to some southern Italian regions.

For a rather long time T. porrifolius and T. eriospermus have been confused. Instead, despite both having "purple" flowers and inflated scape below the capitula, the two species are rather easily distinguished:

Here the original description of T. eriospermus and the first drawing:
http://www.ortobotanico.unina.it/FN/TV/TV0176.PDF
http://www.ortobotanico.unina.it/FN/TavoleFN/t0186.PDF

The type of T. porrifolius has been selected here:
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1222832
and can be viewed here:
https://linnean-online.org/9553/

Most of the observations of T. porrifolius from North America refer to another taxon that is more similar to T. eriospermus:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=97394&taxon_id=54141

In Europe it is just slightly better...

Maybe could it be worth revising the presence of the "purple-flowered" Tragopogon in North America?
To do this, apart photographing the capitulum and the scape below the capitulum, it would be useful to photograph:

1) leaves: undulate/not undulate at margins

2) phyllaries: reflexed/porrect at flowering

3) achenes when dried: achene body strongly narrowed into a very narrow rostrum or just slightly narrowed

4) habitat: dry or rather wet

Posted on quarta-feira, 04 de maio de 2022, 11:14h by blue_celery blue_celery | 10 comentários | Deixar um comentário

15 de dezembro de 2021

Taxonomic Literature: A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types

axonomic Literature: A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types
Bibliographies, types and other data on almost all botanical authors.

https://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollectio ... /index.cfm
https://www.sil.si.edu/DigitalCollectio ... nloads.cfm

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/ite ... 1/mode/1up

Posted on quarta-feira, 15 de dezembro de 2021, 11:01h by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

07 de novembro de 2021

Flora of Nepal

Flora of Nepal
http://www.floraofnepal.org/home

including free PDFs

Posted on domingo, 07 de novembro de 2021, 09:41h by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

05 de novembro de 2021

Taxonomic keys by Jean Leurquin (Naturalistes de la Haute-Lesse)

Taxonomic keys by Jean Leurquin (Naturalistes de la Haute-Lesse)

https://naturalistesdelahautelesse.be/about/publications%20de%20jean%20leurquin.html

Posted on sexta-feira, 05 de novembro de 2021, 18:27h by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário

19 de outubro de 2021

On the discrepancies between the taxonomic backbones and the current taxonomy of certain taxa

As expected, there are many cases of discrepancies between the used backbones and the long-accepted taxonomy of certain taxa. It couldn't be different.

This is my very own and debatable point of view: I think it is quite weird that we must wait for an external subject (though very authoritative and our present reference as taxonomic backbone for plants) to revise its taxonomic treatment of a certain taxon in order to have it here recognized as an independent taxon.
In some cases it is suggested to get in contact with that subject to ask its staff to revise their point of view on a given taxon. As regards, I think it would be very impolite to bring someone's attention to their (presumed) wrong taxonomic treatment of a certain taxon.

Definitively, I think that those who adjust the iNat taxonomy to that of a given backbone should take much more care in changing iNat taxonomy. Wouldn't it be worth taking a look at other taxonomic treatments before or to ask the point of view of those who are supposed to know that taxon well?

PS: I know which are the "rules" but, at the same time, I am deeply convinced that following overzealously the rules is not always the best.

Posted on terça-feira, 19 de outubro de 2021, 10:13h by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comentários | Deixar um comentário