Systema Dipterorum's Checklist of Helina (Diptera: Muscidae) north of Mexico and potentially

The genus Helina has been called the second largest genus in Muscidae., with well over 400 species in the world (Wang et al., 2004), It is also one of the difficult to recognize genera of muscids along with Phaonia and Mydaea. The biology of Helina species is poorly studied. Many revisionary works lack any mention at all on biology, but most species are probably detritivores as larvae, living under bark, in rotting wood, in tree holes, in vertebrate nests, and more.
No catalogue for Muscidae exists for the Nearctic region after Huckett in Stone et al. (1965). Since then, several changes could have occured according to Systema Dipterorum. A catalogue to Neotropical Muscidae was created by de Carvalho et al. (2005). Quadrularia is now a part of Helina, transferring annosa, "laetifica" (=evecta), "laetifica var. nivalis" (=flavisquama), and "punctata " Stein (=steini) to Helina. Helina laetifica is considered to be a synonym of H. evecta, but its variety known as nivalis is considered one of H. flavisquama by Systema Dipterorum, which conflicts with BugGuide. Helina steini is proposed by Pont (2013) for Helina puctata Stein. Helina flavisquama is also now considered the new name for Helina basalis Zetterstedt. Helina duplicata is now a synonym of the Holarctic species Helina reversio, the latter thus being an introduced species not recognized until recently. Helina troene var. fulviventris is treated as a full species distinct from troene. Eupogonomyia neoborealis is transferred to Helina. Helina platykarenos and polychaeta are described from California by Huckett (196). Helina punctata Robineau-Desvoidy is a synonym of Helina sexmaculata. Helina rothi became a synonym of H. subvittata. Ariciella flavicornis is transferred to Helina and its new name Helina rubripalpis is delivered by Pont (1972). Helina setifer is described by Huckett (1965). Helina snyderi is described from Wyoming by Steystkal (1966). Once again, these are all from the perspective of Systema Dipterorum and often these changes are not accepted among workers in reality
Additional species were included in this checklist that are not known north of Mexico, but are implied in some way by Systema Dipterorum that they could reach into north. The species are included if the range notes detail "NE: Mexico" (not NT: Mexico) with NE meaning Nearctic and NT meaning Neotropical or something more explicit. These species are Helina caneo (range notes: "(NE: NE) Mexico"), H. meraca (range notes: "(NT: NT NE) Mexico"), mulcata (range notes: "(NT: NT NE) Mexico; ?North America"), parvula (range notes: "(NE: NE PA NT AF) Mexico"), sera (its synonym, H. arroya has range notes: "NE"), and H. tarsalis (range notes: "(NE: NE) Mexico"). Helina depuncta and H. refusa were listed in Stone et al. (1965) with strong doubts as to their Nearctic occurences. There remains no reason to believe they occur in the Nearctic.
In order to key or identify these specimens, several keys are needed at hand: Wulp (1896), Malloch (1921), Snyder (1949b), Huckett (1965), and more. Original descriptions may also need to be consulted, especially for specimens from subtropical areas. Snyder (1949) is the major revision to use. In that paper, H. rothi is H. subvittata, H. anceps is nigribasis, and H. obscuripes is cothurnata, according to Systema Dipterorum.

Checklist (67 species):
Genus Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 493
Helina abiens (Stein, 1898: 193) - Arizona, North Dakota to s. Quebec, s. toN.C. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Spilogaster abiens Stein, 1898: 193
Helina algonquina Malloch, 1922: 96 - North Carolina,Florida References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina annosa (Zetterstedt, 1838: 663) - Alaska to Labr.,s. to California and New York,Palaearctic References: Malloch (1921), Snyder (1949a)
= Anthomyza annosa Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza annosa Zetterstedt, 1838: 663
= Aricia bicolor Pokorny, 1889: 549
= Aricia multisetosa Strobl, 1898: 238
Helina barpana (Walker, 1849: 933) - Nova Scotia
= Anthomyia barpana Walker, 1849: 933
Helina bicolorata (Malloch in Cole and Lovett, 1919: 253) - British Columbia, Washington,California References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia bicolorata Malloch in Cole and Lovett, 1919: 253
= Mydaea aperta Stein, 1920: 28
Helina bispinosa Malloch, 1920: 142 - British Columbia toMan., s. toCalif. and New Mexico References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina bohemani (Ringdahl, 1916: 235) - British Columbia to Manitoba, s.to California and New Mexico, also Illinois, n. Europe,Russia References: Snyder (1949b)
= Helina subeiensis Ma & Wang, 1992: 407
= Mydaea bohemani Ringdahl, 1916: 235
Helina canadensis Snyder, 1949b: 136 - Quebec,New York
Helina caneo Snyder, 1941: 10 - Mexico
Helina cinerella (Wulp, 1867: 150) - Alaska to Labr., s. to Calif.and Michigan,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b) (as vanderwulpi)
= Aricia cinerella Wulp, 1867: 150
= Aricia vanderwulpi Schnabl, 1888: 387
= Aricia propinqua Strøm, 1896: 239
= Aricia brevis Stein, 1898: 180
= Aricia menechma Pandellé, 1898: 56
= Helina aldrichi Snyder, 1949: 122
= Helina tuleskovi Lavciev, 1968: 63
Helina consimilata Malloch, 1920: 144 - Washington, Colorado,Wisconsin to New Hampshire andMass. References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina cothurnata (Rondani, 1866: 116) - Alaska to N.W.T., s. to California and New Hampshire, Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b) (as obscuripes)
= Spilogaster cothurnata Rondani, 1866: 116
= Anthomyza obscuripes Zetterstedt of Stein, 1916: 65
Helina cruciata Snyder, 1941: 9 - Arizona References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina evecta (Harris, 1780: 125) - Alaska to Nfld., s. to California and Tennessee, cent. Amer.,Palaearctic References: Malloch (1921), Snyder (1949a)
= Musca evectus Harris, 1780: 125
= Musca lucorum Fallén, 1823: 55
= Mydina laetifica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 500
= Mydina soror Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 501
= Anthomyia pylone Walker, 1849: 928
=Anthomyia incerta Walker, 1853: 354
= Anthomyia solita Walker, 1853: 354
= Spilogaster venosa Rondani, 1877: 98
= Aricia graefenbergiana Schnabl, 1888: 447
= Aricia mohyleviensis Schnabl, 1888: 449
= Aricia obscurataeformis Schnabl, 1888: 383
= Hyetodesia abacta Giglio-Tos, 1893: 8
= Hyetodesia abdicta Giglio-Tos, 1893: 8
= Mydaea vulnifera Villeneuve, 1927: 266
= Spilogaster limbovenosa Hennig, 1961: 228
Helina exilis (Stein, 1920: 30) - Wisconsin, Michigan,New York,Quebec,Connecticut References: Snyder (1949b)
= Mydaea exilis Stein, 1920: 30
Helina flavisquama (Zetterstedt, 1849: 3287) - Alaska to Nunavut,s. to California and Labrador,Newfoundland,Palaearctic. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyza basalis Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza basalis Zetterstedt, 1838: 663
= Anthomyza nivalis Zetterstedt, 1838: 663
= Aricia flavisquama Zetterstedt, 1849: 3287
= Aricia setigera Stein, 1900: 305
= Mydaea setitibia Stein, 1914: 19
= Mydaea flavocalyptrata Stein, 1920: 31
= Helina hylemyioides Malloch, 1920: 137
Helina floridensis Snyder, 1949: 126 - Florida References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina fulvisquama (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1491) - Alaska to Labrador, s. to California and New Hampshire,Lapland, n.Europe,Russia References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia fulvisquama Zetterstedt, 1845: 1491
= Phaonia arctica Schnabl & Becker, 1915: 50
= Helina tuberculata Malloch, 1919: 277
Helina fulviventris (Bigot, 1885: 291) - B.C.s. to Calif. References: Snyder (1949b) (as synonym of troene)
= Spilogaster fulviventris Bigot, 1885: 291
= Mydaea varia Stein, 1920: 36
= Helina troene var. fulviventris Bigot of Stone et al., 1965
Helina garretti Snyder, 1949: 140 - British Columbia
Helina griseogaster Snyder, 1949: 138 = Colorado
Helina humilis (Stein, 1920: 32) - British Columbia to California, Arizona, Wyo.,andColo. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Mydaea humilis Stein, 1920: 32
Helina johnsoni Malloch, 1920: 141 - Wisconsin,Quebec and N.S., s.toGa. References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina keremeosa Snyder, 1949: 156 - California References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina lasiosterna Snyder, 1941: 9 - Mexico; North America References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina laxifrons (Zetterstedt, 1860: 6200) - Alaska to Que., s. to Utah and Georgia,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia laxifrons Zetterstedt, 1860: 6200
= Aricia curvipes Schnabl, 1888: 383
= Aricia nigripennis Schnabl, 1888: 378
= Spilogaster nigricans Stein, 1898: 198
= Mydaea tinctipennis Stein, 1916: 69
Helina linearis Malloch, 1920: 139 - Washington, Alberta, Montana,Minnesota to Quebec, s. toIll. References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina longicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838: 678) - Yukon Territory, Nunavut,Manitoba,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b) (notes), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyza longicornis Zetterstedt, 1837: 44 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza longicornis Zetterstedt, 1838: 678
= Spilogaster angulicornis Pokorny, 1889: 555
Helina luteisquama (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1492) - Alaskato Nunavut, s. to Manitoba and Labrador,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia luteisquama Zetterstedt, 1845: 1492
Helina maculipennis (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1475) - Alaska, British Columbia and Alberta, s. to California and New Mexico, alsoMan.,Labrador, Brazil, Europe, Asia References: Snyder (1949b) (as neopoeciloptera)
= Helina neopoeciloptera Malloch, 1920: 139
= Helina poeciloptera Malloch, 1918: 271
Helina marguerita Snyder, 1949: 137 - Yukon Territory, Nunavut, California,Quebec, Ontario,Labrador References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina meraca (Wulp, 1896: 325) - Mexico References: Wulp (1896) (as Limnophora), Pont (1972) (not easily accessible), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Limnophora meraca Wulp, 1896: 325
= Helina meraca>/i> Wulp of Pont, 1972 (new combination)
Helina mulcata
(Giglio-Tos, 1893: 7) - Mexico; ?North America References: Wulp (1896) (as Hyetodesia), Stein (1918) (notes) (as Mydaea), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Hyetodesia mulcata Giglio-Tos, 1893: 7
Helina multiseriata Malloch, 1922: 95 - British Columbia and Alberta,s. to California andColo. References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina neoborealis Snyder, 1949: 122 - Alaska, Nunavut (Victoria and Ellesmere Is.),California,Colorado References: Huckett (1965) (as Eupogonomyia)
= Eupogonomyia neoborealis Snyder of Stone et al., 1965
Helina nigribasis Malloch, 1920: 143 - Alaska to Arizona, Wisconsin & Illinois to Maryland and Labrador, s. to Florida. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyza anceps Zetterstedt of Stein, 1904: 449
Helina nigripennis (Walker, 1849: 929) - Alaska to California and Colorado, also Manitoba to Newfoundland, s.toMich. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyia nigripennis Walker, 1849: 929
= Aricia nitida Stein, 1898: 185
= Spilogaster crepuscularis Stein, 1898: 201
Helina nigrita Malloch, 1920: 139 - Alberta toMan., s. toCalif. and New Mexico References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina nudibasis Snyder, 1949: 147 - New Mexico
Helina obscurata (Meigen, 1826: 89) - Alaska to Labrador,s. to California, Illinois, and New York,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyia obscurata Meigen, 1826: 89
= Mydina fuliginosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 498
= Mydina vernalis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 498
= Anthomyza sahlbergi Zetterstedt, 1837: 43 (nomen nudum)
= Anthomyza sahlbergi Zetterstedt, 1838: 664
= Anthomyza veterana Zetterstedt, 1838: 662
= Aricia duplaris Zetterstedt, 1845: 1411
= Aricia sordidiventris Zetterstedt, 1845: 1416
= Anthomyia detracta Walker, 1853: 122
= Helina nasoni Malloch, 1920: 138
Helina obscuratoides (Schnabl, 1887: 347) - Alberta, Manitoba,South Dakota,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia obscuratidea Pandellé, 1898: 59
= Aricia obscuratoides Schnabl, 1887: 347
Helina obscurinervis (Stein, 1898: 199) - Oregon, California, Kansas to Quebec, s. to Texas andFla. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Spilogaster obscurinervis Stein, 1898: 199
Helina orbitaseta (Stein, 1898: 186) - Wash.to California andAriz., alsoMo. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia orbitaseta/i> Stein, 1898: 186
Helina oregonensis
(Malloch in Cole and Lovett, 1919: 254) - British Columbia,Idaho,Utah References: Snyder (1949b) (notes)
= Aricia oregonensis Malloch in Cole and Lovett, 1919: 254
Helina parvula (Wulp, 1896: 321) - Mexico References: Snyder (1941), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Spilogaster parvula Wulp, 1896: 321
Helina pectinata (Johannsen, 1916: 392) - British Columbia to Manitoba, s. toCalif. and Arkansas, also Que.to N.S. toN.Y. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Mydaea pectinata Johannsen, 1916: 392
= Mydaea biseriata Stein, 1920: 29
= Helina mimetica Malloch, 1920: 142
Helina platykarenos Huckett, 1966: 286 - California
Helina polychaeta Huckett, 1966: 288 - California
Helina procedens (Walker, 1861: 315) - Mexico; North America References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia procedens Walker, 1861: 315
= Spilogaster uniseta Stein, 1898: 192
Helina reversio (Harris, 1780: 146) - Alaska to Nfld., s. to California and New York,Palaearctic References: Malloch (1921) (as duplicata), Huckett (1965) (as duplicata)
= Musca reversio Harris, 1780: 146
= Anthomyia compuncta Wiedemann, 1817: 80
= Anthomyia duplicata Meigen, 1826: 92
= Helina tibialis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 494
= Mydina claripennis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 497
= Mydina communis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 497
= Mydina limpidipennis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 498
= Mydina nigricans Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 497
= Mydina nigripes Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 498
= Anthomyia quadripunctata Brullé, 1833: 315
= Spilogaster caesia Macquart, 1835: 296
= Spilogaster quadrivittata Macquart, 1844: 163
= Anthomyia decedens Walker, 1853: 121
= Anthomyia fixa Walker, 1853: 121
= Anthomyia infixa Walker, 1853: 132
= Anthomyza vilis Zetterstedt, 1845: 1669
= Anthomyza flavogrisea Zetterstedt, 1860: 6275
= Aricia prospinosa Pandellé, 1898: 56
= Mydaea multimaculata Schnabl, 1911: 95
= Mydaea tagojana Santos Abreu, 1976: 115
Helina rubripalpis (Wulp, 1896: 320) - Mexico, Costa Rica; Texas References: Wulp (1896) (as Spilogaster), Stein (1920) (as Mydaea), Pont (1972), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Spilogaster rubripalpis Wulp, 1896: 320
= Ariciella flavicornis Malloch, 1918: 66
= Helina flavicornis Malloch, 1918: 66
Helina rufitibia (Stein, 1898: 181) - Alberta to Quebec, s. to California andGa. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Aricia rufitibia Stein, 1898: 181
= Hebecnema rufitibia Stein, 1908: 95
= Helina rufitibialis Hennig, 1957: 152
= Hebecnema luteoligaster Santos Abreu, 1976: 75
= Hebecnema nitidiuscula Santos Abreu, 1976: 76
= Hebecnema thoracica Santos Abreu, 1976: 76
Helina sera (Giglio-Tos, 1893: 9) - Mexico References: Snyder (1949c), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Spilogaster sera Giglio-Tos, 1893: 9
= Helina arroya Snyder, 1949: 6
Helina setifer Huckett, 1965: 256 - Yukon Territory
Helina sexmaculata (Preyssler, 1791: 88) - South Dakota and Minnesota, s. to Colorado and Missouri, Massachusetts to Georgia,Palaearctic, New Zealand References: Snyder (1949b) (as uliginosa)
= Musca deduco Harris, 1780: 125
= Musca sexmaculata Preyssler, 1791: 88
= Musca uliginosa Fallén, 1825: 81
= Rohrella punctata Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 492
= Anthomyza flavicoxa Zetterstedt, 1860: 6277
Helina spinicosta (Zetterstedt, 1845: 1641) - Alaska,Nunavut, n. Europe, n.USAS.R. References: Snyder (1949b) (notes), Huckett (1965)
= Anthomyza spinicosta Zetterstedt, 1845: 1641
= Anthomyza congenulata Zetterstedt, 1860: 6266
= Ecliponeura spinicosta Emden, 1941: 257
= Helina spinicostata Pont, 1980: 736
Helina spinilamellata Malloch, 1920: 140 - Montana References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina spinosa (Walker, 1849: 926) - Alaska to Labrador, s. toCalif. and New Mexico References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyia spinosa Walker, 1849: 926
= Aricia latifrontata Malloch, 1918: 270
Helina spuria Malloch, 1920: 144 - Oregon, Colorado References: Snyder (1949b)
Helina squalens (Zetterstedt, 1838: 669) - Alaska to Labr., s. to Manitoba, n.w.Europe References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyza borealis Zetterstedt, 1837: 44
= Anthomyza squalens Zetterstedt, 1837: 43
= Anthomyza borealis Zetterstedt, 1838: 679
= Anthomyza squalens Zetterstedt, 1838: 669
Helina snyderi Steyskal, 1966: 177 - Wyoming
Helina steini Pont, 2013
= Aricia punctata Stein, 1898: 182
= Quadrularia punctata Stein of Stone et al., 1965
Helina subvittata (Séguy, 1923: 336) - Europe: (Andorra), Russia: Asia: Japan; Alaska to Labrador, s. to California and New York,Palaearctic References: Snyder (1949b) (as rothi)
= Helina rothi Ringdahl, 1939: 150
= Phaonia subvittata Séguy, 1923: 336
Helina tarsalis (Stein, 1918: 220) - Mexico References: Stein (1920) (as Mydaea), Pont (1972) (not easily accessible), de Carvalho et al. (2005)
= Mydaea tarsalis Stein, 1918: 220
= Helina tarsalis Stein of Pont, 1972 (new combination)
Helina toga Snyder, 1949: 158 - Michigan
Helina troene (Walker, 1849: 936) - British Columbia to Newfoundland, s. to Calif.andGa. References: Snyder (1949b)
= Anthomyia lysinoe Walker, 1849: 938
= Anthomyia troene Walker, 1849: 936
= Spilogaster amoeba Stein, 1898: 190
= Spilogaster pubiceps Stein, 1898: 194
Helina ute Snyder, 1949: 155 - California
Helina villihumilis Snyder, 1949: 156 - British Columbia

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Publicado por aispinsects aispinsects, 22 de junho de 2022, 06:35 AM

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